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Connective Adverbs

Indicate a relationship between two clauses

organic
 

 

Connective Adverbs and Prepositional Phrases

CONNECTIVE ADVERBS

A connective adverb expresses a relationship between two clauses, and it transitions the reader or listener from the main idea in one clause to the idea in the next clause. (Also called conjunctive adverbs, linking adverbs, or transition words.)

ENUMERATING / ORDERING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

Firstly, Secondly, Third/ Thirdly, Then, Next, Lastly, Finally
(First and second (ordinal numbers) and last may also be used.)

ADDING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  Organic fruit and vegetables are less contaminated by chemical pesticides, and they are not genetically modified. Furthermore, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Moreover, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

Furthermore, Moreover,  Another thing is   See And / In addition "adding a conclusive fact"

SUMMING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. Overall, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

Overall, To summarize, To conclude, All in all

PLACING IN APPOSITION / RESTATING

Buying organic foods is a better choiceWhich is to say, they are less contaminated, altered, and processed. As a result, they have a shorter "shelf life", that is, they stay fresh for shorter periods of time on market shelves than foods with preservatives.  Shorter shelf-life means you eat fresher food.

Which is to say, That is, Namely, Specifically, More precisely

CONDLUDING / INFERRING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully, so they have better flavor. Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. Therefore, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

Therefore, Consequently. Thus, Hence, So   (Because)

CONTRASTING / CONCEDING

Buying organic fruit is a better choice. While conventionally grown fruit may be contaminated by chemical pesticides, organically grown fruit is not.   Conventionally produced fruit is picked while it is green so that it will not become damaged in long-distance shipping. However, organic fruit is picked when it is ripe, and by necessity is consumed locally.

Alternatively, However, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, Yet    See Contrast and Contrary Outcome.

TRANSITIONING – A LOOSELY RELATED ADDITION

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. Incidentally, you will pay more for organically produced food.

Incidentally, Now (inf.)    See Extra Comments, Aside Comments.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

Similarly, a prepositional phrase may be used to express a relationship between two clauses and to transition the reader from the main idea in one clause the idea in the next clause.                                                                                             

ENUMERATING ORDERING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  In the first place, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  For another, they are not genetically modified. In addition, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  In conclusion, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

For one thing, For another, In the second place, To begin with

ADDING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  Organic fruit and vegetables are less contaminated by chemical pesticides, and they are not genetically modified. In addition, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Besides that, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

In addition, Besides that

SUMMING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. In short, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

In sum, In summary, In conclusion, in short

PLACING IN APPOSITION / RESTATING

Buying organic foods is a better choiceFor example, they are less contaminated, altered, and processed. As a result, they have a shorter "shelf life", in other words, they stay fresh for shorter periods of time on market shelves than foods with preservatives.  Shorter shelf-life means you eat fresher food.

In other words, For example, For instance

CONCLUDING / INFERRING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully for better flavor  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. As a result, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

As a result , For this reason, For all these reasons, In conclusion

CONTRASTING / CONCEDING

Buying organic fruit is a better choice.  Conventionally grown fruit is contaminated by chemical pesticides. In contrast, organically grown fruit is not.   Conventionally produced fruit is picked while it is green so that it will not become damaged in long-distance shipping. On the other hand, organic fruit is picked when it is ripe, and by necessity is consumed locally.

On the other hand, In contrast to  See Comparisons

TRANSITIONING – A LOOSELY RELATED ADDTION

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. By the way, you will pay more for organically produced food.

By the way, By the by(not commonly used)

 

Also called: transitions words, adverbial conjunctions, conjuncts, connective adjuncts, linking adverbs. See Grammar Notes below.

so, yet, however — "connective adverbs" (Huddleston 15 §2.10)

See Connector Summary .

 

 

 

 

 

Connective Adverb

List

 

CONNECTIVE ADVERBS
ORDERING    

First / Firstly

Second / Secondly

Third / Thirdly

Next / Then

Last / Lastly

Finally

ADDING    

Additionally

Also

Besides

Furthermore

Moreover

Another thing

SUMMING    

All in all

In short (P)

Overall,

To conclude,

To summarize

 

CONNECTIVE ADVERBS
CONCLUDING    

Consequently

Hence

Therefore

Thereupon

Thus

So

CONTRASTING

 

 

Alternatively

However

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

Yet

 

TRANSITIONING    

Incidentally

Now

 

By the way (P)

Parenthetically

 

 

P–preposition

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

* At first, I want to talk to you. Then, we'll decide what to do.  

Firstly, organic foods have no preservatives, so they are fresher. In addition, they are not genetically modified.  *Nextly, they taste better because they are allowed to ripen fully.

 

One advantage is that organic foods have no preservatives, so they are fresher. In addition, they are not genetically modified.  *At last, they taste better because they are allowed to ripen fully.

 

SOLUTION

Firstly, I want to talk to you. Then, we'll decide what to do. adverb

First, I…   You can also use an ordinal number instead of the adverb.

At first, I wanted to talk to him, but then I changed my mind. "in the beginning" (time adverb)

Next, they taste better…  an old form that is no longer used 

When using adverbs for ordering, most writers use a particular word form to maintain the style of writing,  i.e. first, second, last or firstly, secondly, lastly, finally. However, next no longer occurs with the -ly suffix.

Lastly, they taste better because they are allowed to ripen fully.

We waited a long time. At last, they arrived with the pizza.   "in the end and late" (time adverb)

 

 

 

 

 

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Grammar Notes (Advanced)

Resource Comments

 

 

 

Traditional and Linguistic Description

TRADITIONAL LINGUISTIC

Connectives such as "therefore", "consequently", "however", "otherwise" and "nevertheless" are called transitions or conjunctive adverbs. (Azar 19-2, 19-9)

Huddleston and Pullum refer to these as connective adjuncts and serial adjuncts (778)  They function in ordering, addition and comparison, elaboration and exemplification.

There is, moreover, no justification for making an exception. (8 §19)
She read the book for the third time. ( 8 §10)

Swan refers to these as connecting adverbs, "These adverbs join a clause to what came before."  Examples: then, next, besides, anyway, suddenly, however.  (22.1) Discourse markers "They can show the connection between what a speaker is saying and what has already been said…  ( 157)

Biber refers to these words as linking adverbials, which state the speaker's perception of the relationship between two units of discourse.…" They are "important devices for creating textual cohesion, alongside coordinators and subordinators."  (10.4.1.4)  The categories are the same as those presented on this page.

 

Quirk refers to these words as conjuncts. "the conjunct function entails a conjunct-specific set of semantic relations.  They are connected with, but are frequently rather remote from, the adverbial relation we must assume in the speaker-related clause to which they correspond."   (1) Listing – enumerative, additive (equating, reinforcing; (2) Summative; (3) Appositional; (4) Resultative; (5) Inferential; (6) Contrastive (7) Transitional.  

Consequently,

  • transition word.conjunctive adverb (Azar 19-2, 19-9)
  • connective adverb (Swan  22.1) discourse marker. (Swan 157.1-21)

Consequently,

  • clause adverb (Aarts 80)
  • linking adverb (Biber 10.4)
  • connective adjunct (Huddleston 8 §19-20)
  • conjunctive clausal modifier. (Payne 250)
  • conjunct (Quirk 8.137)
     

 

Works Cited

  • Azar, Betty Schrampfer, and Stacy A. Hagen. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 4th ed., Pearson Education, 2009.
  • Biber, Douglas, and Stig Johansson, et al. Longman Grammar Of Spoken And Written English. Pearson Education, 1999.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D., and Geoffrey K. Pullum. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge UP, 2002.
  • Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2005.

 

 

 

 

Practice

Organic Food: Is it Worth It?

vegetables
Try organic food,
or as your grandparents called it, "Food".
 

Add connective (linking, conjunctive) adverbs.

  1. Select your response from the menu.
  2. Compare your edit with the feedback.  (More than one answer exist.)

 

1–2.

 

 

 

 

3–4.
 
 
 

pesticide (N) – a chemical substance used to kill insects and small animals that destroy crops
residue (N) – a substance that remains on a surface and cannot be removed easily, or that remains after a chemical process
Also see "Adding examples or clarification" For example.

 

 

 

6–11.
An item labeled "organic" must meet several requirements.     
An item labeled "organic" must meet several requirements.