Brainstorm Organize Rough draft First Edit Re-draft Second Edit Final Planning Guide

Do the foundation work for writing your paper

Pyramid Image of Steps - examples below

 

 

Some simple steps will help you write a well-thought out, correctly written essay or paper.

 

Reserve:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brainstorm

Explore the Subject

 

 

 

This activity is what writers spend the most time doing before they write. Before your pen touches the paper, learn all that you can about your topic.

The more time you spend thinking and brainstorming at the beginning of an assignment, the less time you will waste while you are writing.

"General Writing Resource." OWL. The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2012. Web. 30 Dec 2013.<https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/1/>.

 

 

 

 

 

Organize

Focus, Plan and Outline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rough Draft

Get Your Ideas on Paper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edit 1

Revise and Check for Errors

 

Check for general errors.

 

 

 

 

Redraft

Rewrite – add and remove

 

 

 

Often when we look at a piece of writing the next day, we can find a lot of things that were missed in the first draft.

 

 

 

 

 

Edit 2

Again — Revise and Check for Errors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final

Write or Type

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Correction Symbols

Understand your instructor's markups

 

 

 

Each instructor has his or her preferred symbols.  Below are some commonly used symbols.

CORRECTION SYMBOLS EXAMPLES

The correction symbols are placed before the word or phrase.    Correction Symbols.doc

sentence boundaries (Create a new sentence or clause.)
//

P//   

new paragraph

Each sentence should begin with a capital letter and end with a period

If more than one S+V+O group is used, they must be added using: punctuation (:) (;), or a connector (and, or, but, so, for, yet, ), or a relative clause pronoun (who, that, which, whose, where, when)
 

ERROR:   Jane went to work and helped her boss finish a project //and it had a lot of problems but came out well.
CORRECTION:  Jane went to work and helped her boss finish a project, which had a lot of problems but came out well.
CORRECTION:  Jane went to work and helped her boss finish a project. It had a lot of problems but came out well.

 

fragment sentence


FRAG

Each sentence must have an implied subject and verb to be a complete sentence. (Punctuation – fragments)

ERROR: My friend, who is a priest who works in the rural areas of my country.   FRAG Often in the city as well.

CORRECTION: My friend, who is a priest and who works in the rural areas of my country, often works in the city as well.
 

verb tense

T

VT

Each verb must agree with the time frame or time word in the sentence:    (present tense summary)   (present perfect summary)

ERROR: I Tlived here since 1992 .
CORRECTION:  I have lived here since 1992.

 

Each verb must agree with the general time frame in the context the whole writing. Tense Unity:

ERROR:  Scientists at MIT discovered a new life form last year. They published their research in "The Journal of Biology ". Others Tare questioning the validity of their work.
CORRECTION:   Others have been questioning the validity of their work.

 

Active Voice


AV

An active verbs is used when the subject is the "agent" doing the action.

EXAMPLE: The pilot  AVwas caused the accident.
CORRECTION:  The pilot caused the accident.
 

Passive Voice


PV

In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of a passive verb; the subject is the "receiver" of the action.  (passive summary)

ERROR:  The accident PVcaused by the pilot.
CORRECTION: The accident was caused by the pilot.

subject-verb
agreement

SV-AGR  

The verb must agree in number with the subject noun:  (subject-predicate)

ERROR: The number of students in community colleges SV-AGR are increasing.
CORRECTION: The number of students in community colleges is increasing.

number (singular-plural)
agreement

N-AGR

The nouns and pronouns must agree within each sentence. (pronoun summary)

ERROR:  Every one of the students N-AGRhave to carry N-AGR  their books in N-AGR their backpacks.
CORRECTION:  Every one of the students has to carry his books in his backpack. or
CORRECTION:   All of the students have to carry their books in their backpacks.

article use
ART

Every noun needs to be considered for article use.  Ask your self if the noun is count or noncount.
Is the noun definite (already identified-by earlier mention, later mention, shared knowledge, or uniqueness), or is the noun indefinite.
Does the noun follow a more specific rule:  See article summary.

ERROR:  We saw the White House and ARTthe Buckingham Palace on our two trips last year.
CORRECTION:   We saw the White House and Buckingham Palace on our two trips last year.

preposition use
PREP

Some rules cover preposition; however, most preposition use has to be learned as individual expressions:  Preposition Summary.

ERROR:  I parked my car PREPon the parking lot and couldn't find it later. 
CORRECTION:   I parked my car In the parking lot and couldn't find it later. 

spelling use
SP

 

(When in doubt, look it up in your dictionary.) Right-clicking (Control or command + click)  will bring up a dictionary feature on most operating systems.

ERROR:  The hotel SPaccomodations were very luxurious. 
CORRECTION:   The hotel accommodations were very luxurious.

delete this
[....]

 

ERROR:  My friend also attends [to] Stanford University.
CORRECTION:  My friend also attends Stanford University.

Avoid wordiness. Stating things simply improves readability. shortening clauses

My friend [who was] born in Turkey was traveling with me.
My friend born in Turkey was traveling with me.

instructor suggests or rephrase this way
(....)

 

ERROR:  My friend is taking (choosing/considering ) a Business major.

CORRECTION: My friend is considering a Business major.

word-use error
<error>

 

ERROR:  <Their>, you can see ducks.

CORRECTION: There, you can see ducks.  (correct)

Word forms:

WF – word form

ERROR: The WF?fly-about kite was beautiful.
CORRECTION:  The flying kite was beautiful.

N – noun

ERROR: I love Nmysterious movies.
CORRECTION:  I love mystery movies.  (noun modifiers )

ADJ – adjective

ERROR:It was a ADJbeauty day.
CORRECTION:  It was a beautiful day. (adjective summary)

ADV – adverb

ERROR:He ran ADVslow to his home.
CORRECTION: He ran slowly to his home. (adverb summary)

GER – gerund

ERROR: GERRace horses was his career.
CORRECTION:  Racing horses was his career.  (gerund summary )

INF – infinitive

ERROR:  I expect INFto seeing him today.
CORRECTION:  I expect to see him today.  (infinitive summary )

 

CAP – capitalization error

 

 

ERROR:  Mr.CAPjanowksi is coming at four o'clock. - should be:
CORRECTION: Mr. Janowski ....

ERROR: I will study there during the CAPFall semester.
CORRECTION:  the fall semester.

P  – punctuation error

 

 

ERROR: I am attending college P because I want to improve my English.
CORRECTION:  I am attending college because I want to improve my English.  (Punctuation summary)

AWK - awkward phrase or word use

ERROR:  He was trying AWKlooking important to everyone.
CORRECTION: He was trying to look important to everyone.  (gerund objects - try )

WO - word order error

ERROR:  She gave WO to me the paper.
CORRECTION:  She gave the paper to me. / She gave me the paper. (dative verbs)

 

Additional Resources