Grammar-QuizzesClauses › Clause Structure

Clause Structure

Parts that make up a clause

X structure diagram
leaf fall
We saw some colorful leaves on the ground.
‹ diagram ›

 

 

Clause Structure

Summary of Practices

 

Function / Category: what it does vs. what it is called

Beginning – Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Diagram: function category

Leaf  (Noun)

A leaf  (Noun Phrase)

A red leaf  (Noun Phrase)

A leaf fell. (Subject)

I found a red leaf(Object)

We have a leaf bin (Modifier)

 

Subject / Predicate:  recognize basic content and function in a clause

Intermediate – Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

subject

Charlie raised his hand.

Feeling confident, Charlie raised his hand.

Clever Charlie, my good friend, raised his hand.

Charlie raised his hand in the air.

Charlie enthusiastically raised his hand.

A Clause: examine the parts that make up a clause

Intermediate – Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

luggage

*Every year, millions of people travel to the U.S. In fact, eighty-six million.   (fragment)

*Put your suitcase down.  Over there. (fragment)
How about a visa? (fragment)

 

*error in sentence  

A Noun: recognize how it can function in a clause

Beginning – Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

A private jet

jet  (noun)

A private jet (noun phrase)

Word Forms: recognize meanings of noun, verb, adjective and adverb forms

Beginning – Advanced ESL, native speakers

Lennon

The singer had imagination. (N)

He imagined. (V)

His writing was imaginative. (Adj)

He used words imaginatively. (Adv)

The singer sang about social revolution. (N)

He revolted(V)

~His writing was revolting. (Adj–meaning change)

~He used words revoltingly(Adv–meaning change)

Negatives: express absence, doubt, denial, prohibition and more

Beginning – Advanced ESL, native speakers

No No's

No one  /   Not anyone has parked illegally.

His inability / disability was clear to us.

He was unsatisfied / dissatisfied.

Do not park there!  We do not park there.

He would park there, wouldn't he?

We asked him not to park there.

I doubt that he *never / ever helps.

He is neither optimistic nor pessimistic.

His no nonsense approach to life is refreshing. (expression)

Verbs : recognize a primary vs. a secondary verb in a clause

Intermediate – Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

walking for health

He walks / walked to work.  (primary)

He walked. (tense)

 

Verb Group :  recognize form and function in a clause

Intermediate – Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

walk to work

We want to walk. (secondary)

He likes walking. (secondary)

He is being tiresome. (lexical "behaving")

He is walking. (auxiliary)  

He was walking. (aspect)

He might walked. (mood)

Verb Phrase : recognize its included parts

Intermediate – Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

Diagram: verb phrase

We want to walk. (secondary)
She likes walking. (secondary)
She is being tiresome. (lexical)
She is walking. (auxiliary)  
She was walking. (aspect)
She might walk. (mood)

Auxiliary Verbs: recognize how they express tense, aspect and mood

Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

Diagram: Charlie hates sitting all day.

Charlie has raised his hand. (tense)

Charlie is raising his hand. (aspect)

Charlie may raise his hand again. (mood)

The question has been asked. (voice)

 

Finite / Nonfinite: recognize two clause categories (primary/secondary verbs)

Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

Charlie dislikes sitting all day

Charlie wants to raise his hand.

Charlie likes raising his hand.

Charlie, annoyed, raised his hand.

Complete Thought: combine a topic and controlling idea

Intermediate – Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

Complete Thought

Why are 20% of Americans unable to find the U.S. on a map?

"I personally believe that U.S. Americans are unable to do so (find the U.S. on a map) because, uh, some people out there in our nation don't have maps and, uh, I believe that our, uh, education like such as in, uh, South Africa and, uh, the Iraq and everywhere like such as, and I believe that they should…

Run-on Sentences: recognize poorly coordinated and excessively lengthy sentences

Intermediate– Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

football

My friend and I blogged and read over his shoulder.

My friend blogged, and I read over his shoulder.

Cleft Clauses:  shift emphasis to other sentence parts by moving content with it or what

Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

energy!

His energy amazed me

What amazed me was his energy.

His energy was what amazed me.

It amazed me that he had so much energy.

 

because

Justin wore his winter pants because it was snowing.  (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

coordinator

We walk and we talk.

present

The wind blows. / The wind blows leaves / The wind is strong. / The wind blows in the winter. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

pres. progressive

Isabela is working tonight. / Helen is jogging around the track. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

gerund-participle

Starting a sentence with a gerund is common. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

gerund-participle

Charlie dislikes sitting all day.  (nonfinite clause) (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

if clause

We take an umbrella if it is raining (prep + clause)

infinitive clause

To start a sentence with an infinitive is awkward. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

It / an extraposed subject

It is hard for him to sit all day.   (infinitive clause with a subject) 

verb + infinitive

Ed needs to get some help. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

verb + object + infinitive

Ed persuaded Frida to do the painting Ed intended Frida to do the painting. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

auxiliary verbs

Charlie was raising his hand. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

modals

Charlie will raise his hand.

We will be leaving at noon.

subject

Clever Charlie next to you raised his hand. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

predicate

Charlie suddenly raised his hand high in the air. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

rather than

We walked home rather than drove home.  / We walked home rather than get stuck in traffic. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

so that / such that

The meteor was so beautiful that we watched it all night. /  It was such a beautiful meteor storm that we watched it all night (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.).

because

Justin wore his winter pants because it was snowing. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

We walk because we like exercise. 

She married at thirteen because she had no other options.

dative verbs
(w/ indirect object)

You bought me a gift. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

participle clause / adjunct modifier
clause)

The man who is seated beside the host is the guest.  The man seated beside the host is the guest. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

participle clause
 (nonfinite clause)

Congress which consists of two houses in on a break. / Congress consisting of two houses is on a break. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

participle clause 
(nonfinite clauses as modifiers)

The building sitting on Alcatraz Island was a federal prison.

participle clause 
(nonfinite clauses as modifiers)

The Golden Gate Bridge located in SF Bay was designed by Strauss. (Click "Grammar Notes" arrow to see diagram.)

prepositional phrase

We walk in the morning.