Quotation Marks

Mark quoted speech, titles of minor works and terms

quotation marks
 

 

 

Restating speech or written text

STYLE MANUAL GUIDELINES

When quoting someone, we take their words and restate them. To be fair to the author or speaker, we should not add, omit or edit the quotation in any way that might change its intended meaning. Because the quotation is taken out of its original context, there is always a danger of misquoting.

1. THE QUOTE

quotation marksPlace quoted speech inside quotation marks.  Place the period inside the final quotation mark. For a dialog, indent the lines. Begin each part with the speaker's name in capital letters followed by a period. (MLA 3.74)

 

2. THE QUOTE COMPLETES THE SENTENCE

A quotation may also be included as the subject or predicate of a clause. Place the period inside the quotation mark when it occurs at the end of the sentence.

Also see Reported Speech and Subj-Predicate.

3. THE QUOTE AFTER THE STATEMENT

Quote after statementPlace a comma after the text that introduces the author or speaker of the quoted material.

4. THE QUOTE BEFORE THE STATEMENT

Statement before quotePlace a comma inside the quotation mark before the author or speaker of the quoted material.

5. A QUESTION WITH A QUOTE

question with a quoteWhen asking a question that includes a quote, place the question mark after the end quotation mark.  Do not add a period or comma inside the quotation mark – one mark, the question mark, is enough.

6. A QUOTED QUESTION

a quoted questionWhen quoting  a question, place the question mark inside the end quotation mark.

7. EXCLAMATION

a quote with an exclamationPlace an exclamation mark inside the end quotation mark   The weaker mark (the comma) is left out.

 

8. A QUOTE WITHIN A QUOTE

quote in a quotePlace a single quote before and after a quotation inside of another quotation.

9. AN INTERRUPTED QUOTE

a separated quotePlace a comma at the end of the first quote and period after the last quote when a quote is broken into two parts within a sentence. Place punctuation inside the quotation mark.

10. A  CONDENSED QUOTE / A QUOTE WITH AN OMISSION

quote with ellipsisPlace ellipsis points into a sentence to mark where words or sentences are omitted from the original source. This to shortens a quote to the essential information. It is important not to change the meaning or intent of the original.

ELLIPSIS KEYBOARD CHARACTER:  Windows: ALT 0133,  or  Mac: Opt ;  (…) no spaces. Typed ellipses:  Use three periods with a space before each and a space after ( . . . )   

STYLE MANUAL DETAILS:

  • Use three dots with a space after each. (MLA 3.7.5)
  • Use three, spaced points for omitted material within a sentence Use four dots after a sentence when omitting material after the sentence (a period at the end of a sentence as well as the three dots.) (CMOS 11.55)   
  • Treat an ellipsis as a three-letter word: three periods and two spaces. ( ... )  (APA 6.08)  
11. INSERTING ADDITIONS OR CLARIFICATIONS

bracketsUse brackets not parentheses to enclose an addition or explanation inserted in a quotation that is not from the original source and that is needed for clarification. (CMOS 11.68)  (MLA 3.7.5  )  (APA 6.06) (AP 330 – not used)

12. MARKING A STRANGE OR MISSPELLED WORD

quote with 'sic' notationPlace sic in brackets directly after a word that is incorrect or is a strange usage.  This lets the reader know that the error was not added by you and that it was in the source material.  Thereafter, do not mark the same error. sic – Latin for thus or so

STYLE MANUAL DETAILS 

  • Italicize the Latin word: sic and enclose with brackets when placed inside the quote, or parentheses when placed after the quote. (CMOS 11.69)
  • Use brackets with sic when inside the quotation. Use parentheses when sic follows quotation. (MLA 3.7.5)
  • Insert the word sic italicized and bracketed immediately after the error. APA 6.06)
  • AP Style does not use sic. Instead it places a note at top of news article (AP 203)
13. ONE OR TWO SENTENCES

Place the quotation in line with the rest of the text if the quotation is short, one or two sentences.

  • If less than a paragraph (CMOS 11.72–84)
  • If less than four lines (MLA 6.51-2)
  • If under 40 words. (APA 6.03)
14. MULTIPLE LINES

STYLE MANUAL DETAILS 

  • Place the quotation in an indented block using the same line spacing as the rest of the document. Cite your source at the end of the block and add the source to your bibliography. (MLA 6.2)
  • If the quotation is more than a paragraph separate the quotation into a block quote. Format the block quote in the same way as the rest of the text. (CMOS 11.23-4 11.36)
  • If a quotation extends to more than four lines when run into the text, set it off from your text by beginning a new line, indenting on inch from the left margin, and typing it double-spaced, without adding quotation marks.  A colon generally introduces a quotation displayed in this way [block], though sometimes the context may require a different mark of punctuation or none at all.  (MLA 3.7.2)
  • If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks,  Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin Double space the entire quotation .  At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and page or paragraph number in parentheses. (APA 6.03)
EXAMPLE

Quoted speech is placed inside quotation marks, also called quotes.  All periods, commas and exclamation marks go inside the quotation marks.  (Quotation marks are also called inverted commas in British English.   

QUOTATION MARKS FOR DIALOG

In this scene, Eric and Lisa interpret their parting words differently:

ERIC. “I’ll call you later.” indented
LISA. “OK. When?”
ERIC. “Soon.”
LISA. “OK. Bye until then.”

FINAL PERIOD

He said the proverb is “too old to know where it came from.” completes the sentence
The coach said that Jason “is the number one hitter in the country.”
“Time is money ” is a proverb so old that no one knows where it came from.

COMMA

He said, “Time is money.” a proverb

*He said that time was money.   Reported speech a proverb loses its meaning in reported speech

 

COMMA

“Time is money, ” he said.

 

 

QUESTION MARK OUTSIDE

Have you heard the proverb, “Time is money ”? 

QUESTION MARK INSIDE

He asked, “What does that mean?”  
“What does that mean?” he asked.

EXLAMATION MARK INSIDE / OUTSIDE

She said, “Wow!”  / “Wow!” she said.
NOT: *“Wow,” she said!

I can't believe he said, "I agree" !
NOT: *"I agree."!  (Gregg 257)

Stop saying, "How did that happen"!  (exclamation is the stronger marker, here)
NOT: *Stop saying, "How did that happen?"!  

A FINAL ABBREVIATION: (Gregg 257)
She exclaimed, "Finally, he finished his PhD.!"
BUT:   *She stated, "Finally, he finished his PhD.."

SINGLE / DOUBLE QUOTES

She said, “My father used to say, ‘Time is money.’

DOUBLE QUOTES

Malcolm said, “All of us seem to make up our minds about other people in an instant,” and added, “without really doing any real thinking.”

ELLIPSIS / DOT DOT DOT

Malcolm said, “All of us seem to make up our minds … in an instant.”   mid-sentence: 3 dots

Malcolm said, “It's a book about rapid cognition, about the kind of thinking that happens in a blink of an eye. Well, “Blink” is a book about those two seconds, because I think those instant conclusions that we reach are really powerful and really important and, occasionally, really good.” end of sentences: 4 dots

INFORMAL USES:

  • beginning a sentence—Malcolm said, …all of us seem to make up our minds in an instant.”  
  • ending the sentence (four dots)—Malcolm said, “All of us seem to make up our minds in an instant….” 
  • trailing off into silence—Marcia said, “I have to leave…”
  • pausing—Marcia said, “Yeah I care.”   (Sabin 291.c)
  • to be continued later—Marcia screamed, “Help...”  
BRACKETS [  ]

Malcolm said, They [the curators] changed their minds in an instant.”   

 

 

(SIC) OR [SIC]

She wrote, There [sic] minds changed in an instant.”   (inside the quotation)
She wrote, “There minds changed in an instant” (sic).   (after the quotation)

She wrote, “There [There,] minds changed in an instant”. or add information 
She wrote, “There [Their] minds changed in an instant.”

 

 

INTEXT QUOTE

“You don't start at the top if you want to find the story. You start in the middle, because it's the people in the middle who do the actual work in the world,” writes Gladwell in the preface to What the Dog Saw

Include author's name and the page number. Give a bibliographic citation at the end of your writing or paper.

BLOCKQUOTE

Thomas Friedman quotes Paul Gilding, the veteran Australian environmentalist-entrepreneur:

How many people, lie on their death bed and say, 'I wish I had worked harder or built more shareholder value,' and how many say, 'I wish I had gone to more ball games, read more books to my kids, taken more walks?' To do that, you need a growth model based on giving people more time to enjoy life, but with less stuff.  (Friedman)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography     (at end of paper¹)

Gladwell, Malcom. What the Dog Saw. New York: Little, Brown and Company. 2009, Print.

Friedman, Thomas L. “The Earth is Full”. Editorial. New York Times. 7 Jun 2011. Web. 11 Jun 2011.

 

 

 

¹ When mentioning a book, a bibliography should appear at the end of the paper or research.  See Citing Sources.

Style Manual Abbreviations: AP (Associated Press), APA (American Psychological Association), CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style), GREGG (Gregg Reference Manual); MLA (Modern Language Association)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quotation Marks

Minor Works (books, media, performance arts)

 

 

 

Referring to parts of major works

STYLE MANUAL GUIDELINES

Quotation marks are used with minor works— part of a book, video, musical or theatrical performance.

15. TITLES FOR PARTS OF BOOK, PERIODICALS

Enclose in quotation marks: chapters of books, poems in collected works of poems, articles in periodicals (magazines, newspapers, and journals).

 

16. TITLES FOR PARTS OF FILMS & AUDIO RECORDINGS

Enclose in quotation marks: television episodes, scenes in films or videos, chapters in audio recordings ( audio books)

 

17. TITLES FOR PARTS OF MUSIC, DANCE, PLAYS

Enclose in quotation marks: tiles of songs within albums, dances within dance performances, scenes within plays.

 

18. TITLES FOR PARTS OF VISUAL WORKS OF ART 

Enclose in quotation marks smaller works that make up a series, an album or a book. such as paintings, photographs, drawings, sculpture.

 

19. TITLES FOR WEB PAGS / E-MAIL MESSAGES

Enclose in quotation marks the title of a Web page within a Web site, and the title (subject line) of an email.

EXAMPLE

Double, not single quotation marks, are used with works such as articles, chapters, musical tracks, photographs within series, and paintings. Compare the markup of the major work in italics with the minor work in quotation marks.

ITALICS VS. QUOTES

The book Edgar Allan Poe's Tales of Mystery and Madness includes the short story “The Tell-Tale Heart”. (2004)

In the Time Magazine article “Near the Madding Crowds.” Vilano warns the national parks to prepare for a large number of visitors this year. (25 Apr 2011)

ITALICS VS. QUOTES

In the Wall Street Journal article, “Apple Surpasses HP as Largest Buyer of Chips,”Jack Swanson asserts…

Jim Dale performs eleven different voices for characters in “Lord Voldemort's Request” in the audio book recording of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.

In the episode “House of the Rising Sun” of Lost, the television series, we learn why Jin was on ill-fated flight 815.

ITALICS VS. QUOTES

“Norwegian Wood”,  written by John Lennon, was a track on the Rubber Soul album.

Lady Gaga's Born This Way includes the song “Edge of Glory”.

“The Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairies”, from The Nutcracker, is one of the best known in ballet.

ITALICS VS. QUOTES

In Lee Friedlander's, book America by Car,  the photograph of the same name “America by car” reveals a complex visual composition filled with wit and nostalgia. (Whitney 2010 )

ITALICS VS. QUOTES

I used Wikipedia.com to find the web page “Puccini”.

Sara Palin “Re: Alaskan Natural Gas.” Message to J. McCain. 24 June 2008. Email.

 

Style Manual Abbreviations: AP (Associated Press), APA (American Psychological Association), CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style), GREGG (Gregg Reference Manual); MLA (Modern Language Association)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quotation Marks

Other uses

 

 

 

Unusual Sense of a Word and Foreign Words

STYLE MANUAL GUIDELINES
20. AN UNUSUAL SENSE OF A WORD

Enclose a word that is used in a different sense in quotes.   Only the first use of the word need be placed in quotes. (MLA 3.2.9a) (CMOS 7.59) (APA 4.07)

Slang should be enclosed in quotations marks if it is foreign to normal vocabulary.  Do not put colloquial terms in quotation marks. (CMOS 7.61)

Slang refers to informal (and often transient) lexical items used by a specific social group.  

Colloquial speech is informal, relaxed speech used on occasion by any speaker. 

21. FOREIGN WORDS

Only the AP Stylebook (Associate Press) uses quotes for foreign words.  This is because italics do not work well within their electronic environment (over the wire.)

Note In electronic environments that do not permit italicization, it is common to place one underline before and after each word or group of words that would be italicized in print (e.g., _Casablanca_) (MLA 3.3)

EXAMPLE
AN UNUSUAL SENSE OF A WORD / SCARE QUOTES

His “friend” was the one who caused his ruin.   irony

His so-called friend caused his ruin.

When he took off his shirt, it looked as if he was still wearing a sweater. I think a little “manscaping” is in order. (unfamiliar or new word)

COLLOQUIAL USAGE
He noodled over the problem for a day or two before making a decision.  (No quotes or italics needed because noodled is in the dictionary.)

QUOTES vs. ITALICS  

AP Stylebook—quotes

Blake's “joie de vivre”makes him a favorite among friends. (AP)

 

Chicago Manual of Style, MLA, APA— italics

Blake's joie de vivre makes him a favorite among friends.

(foreign words — CMOS, APA, MLA)

 

 

scare quotes (pl. n.) — a pair of quotation marks used around a term or phrase to indicate that the writer does not think it is being used appropriately or that the writer is using it in a specialized sense: a “huge breakthrough” in the negotiations.

Also see Italics

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quotation Exception

Emotional outbursts

 

 

 

Quoted speech form only

QUOTED SPEECH

In most situations, quoted speech can be changed to reported speech, but not:

She cried, “Mom!  Johnny hit me.” 

He said, “Time is money.”  a proverb

 

REPORTED SPEECH

Speech that is emotionally charged has more impact when left as quoted speech.  Also, sayings and proverbs sound odd when changed to reported speech.

She cried to her mother that her brother had hit her.
The emotional impact is lost in reported speech.

*He said that time was money.
 
The proverb loses its impact in reported speech and in the past tense.  

 

Also see Reported speech

Unicode character: (left double quote – “ right double quote ”)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

She's my “girl friend”. She is a “girl” and a “friend”.

 

The brain of Watson, Jeopardy's IBM computer, works differently from the brains of the contestants.  It examines and eliminates all wrong possibilities.

My great  success as a comedian occurred when I fell off the stage and the audience thought it was hilarious.  hilarious – extremely funny

 

SOLUTION

She is my “girlfriend”.
Use quotes to express  a different sense of the world.

She is a girl and a friend.
Use no quotes when using a word in its normal sense.

The “brain” of Watson, Jeopardy's IBM computer, works differently…
Use quotes to express a different sense of the world.

The system logic of Watson... 
Use more precise, appropriate wording.
 

My great “success” as a comedian occurred when…
Use quotes to express irony.

 

 

 

Resources 

 

Style Manual Abbreviations (used in this website)

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Running Into an Old Friend

chance meeting
 

 

Read for Errors

Eric said, “Hello, Lisa”!

“Hello Eric”; she said “How have you been doing?”

“Pretty good.” he said.   (informal)

He asked, “What's new with you?”

“A lot of things.” “Let's get some coffee and talk,” she responded.

Eric mentioned, “A friend said, ‘Lisa is getting married.’ ”

“What you heard through the “grapevine” is old news. We broke up.” she lamented.

“I’m sad to hear that. Ubi amor, ibi dolor,” responded Eric.

ubi amor, ibi dolor — Latin  where [there is] love, there [is] pain

 

 

Complete the sentence.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 1-10" button at the bottom, or click the check button to the left  as you go.

 

1.
Eric said, “Hello, Lisa”!

   

2.
“Hello Eric” she said “How have you been doing?”

   

3.
“Pretty good.” he said.   (informal)

   

4.
He asked, “What's new with you?”

   

5.
“A lot of things.” “Let's get some coffee and talk,” she responded.

   

6.
Eric mentioned, “A friend said, ‘Lisa is getting married.’ ”

   

7.
“What you heard through the “grapevine” is old news. We broke up,” she lamented.

   

8.
“I’m sad to hear that. Ubi amor, ibi dolor,” responded Eric.

ubi amor, ibi dolor ( Latin expression) –  where [there is] love, there [is] pain

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Negotiating a Car Deal

 

 

Complete the sentence.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

9.


reported speech
10.

11.

12.

Then, he looked at me and waited for my response.

13.

14.

15.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Quotes from Stories, Myths and Film

rabbit
 

 

Read for Errors

The White Rabbit said I'm late. I'm late. For a very important date.  No time to say "Hello."  Goodbye. I'm late, I'm late, I'm late!  (Lewis Carroll. Alice in Wonderland. 1951.film)

When asked if one should end a sentence with a preposition, Churchill replied That is a rule up with which I shall not put. (source unknown – story)

Who cut down my cherry tree? asked George Washington's father.
I cannot tell a lie said George I cut down your cherry tree. (Parson Weems 1800 print)

Dorothy looked around and remarked to her dog Toto, I've a feeling we're not in Kansas any more. (L. Frank Baum.The Wizard of Oz. 1938. film)

The only time to eat diet food is while you're waiting for the steak to cook said Julia Child    (Julia Child TV chef)

My teacher said Plato said wise men speak because they have something to say; fools because they have to say something. (Attributed to Plato, 427 – 347 BC)

Scarlet: Rhett, if you go, where shall I go? What shall I do?
Rhett Butler: Frankly, my dear, I don't give a damn. (Gone with the Wind. 1939. dialog)

 

 

 

 

Edit for errors.

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

16.
The White Rabbit said I'm late. I'm late. For a very important date.  No time to say "Hello."  Goodbye. I'm late, I'm late, I'm late!


17.
When asked if one should end a sentence with a preposition, Churchill replied That is a rule up with which I shall not put.


18.
Who cut down my cherry tree? asked George Washington's father.
I cannot tell a lie said George I cut down your cherry tree.


19.
Dorothy looked around and remarked to her dog Toto, I've a feeling we're not in Kansas any more. 


20.
The only time to eat diet food is while you're waiting for the steak to cook said Julia Child. (Julia Child TV chef)


21.
My teacher said Plato said wise men speak because they have something to say; fools because they have to say something.


22.
Scarlet: Rhett, if you go, where shall I go? What shall I do?
Rhett Butler: Frankly, my dear, I don't give a damn.