Cognitive States

Express thinking, cognition and attitude

thinking
 

 

Cognitive States vs. Active Thinking

STATIC– NONPROGRESSIVE

A static verb indicates a state. The verbs below are states of "cognition" (know, believe, think, understand, recognize, remember). They express how we passively and mentally process the world around us.  A static verb usually takes the nonprogressive verb form; however, current usage is changing, specially with like and feel.

He knows what he needs to do.

He believes he is right.

He thinks (that) he can win.

He understands the problem.

He realizes what he must do.

He recognizes the difficulties.

He remembers everything.

He wants to graduate from college.

They need help to finish.

He loves her.  NOT  He is loving her.

He misses her. (feels sad without her) 

He hates living in the city.

He appreciates your work.

He likes attending school.

*He is liking school.

I feel strongly about this.   [believe, have a storng opinion]
(dynamic verb, rarely used in the progressive; see Feel)   (Swan 202.2)

PROGRESSIVE

A dynamic verb expresses an activity. Some of the verbs (think and remember) in the progressive form are used for performing a cognitive activity. Other verbs indicate ongoing experience (liking, loving, hating, wanting, feeling), and others a gradual change in state or experience (believe, realize, recognize, understand).                        

*He is knowing the subject. (Use learn.)

*He is believing her lies.

He is believing in himself more now. (static–gradual change)

He is carefully thinking about it. (dynamic–mental activity–verb accepts a manner adverb)

*He is understanding.

He is understanding the problem  better now. (gradual change)

*He is realizing the answer.  But: He is realizing what he must do.  (gradual change)

*He is recognizing you.

He is recognizing his faults. (static–gradual change)

He is carefully remembering  his childhood. (dynamic–mental activity–verb accepts a manner adverb)

*He is wanting to go to college.

He has been wanting to go to college. (static– ongoing in present perfect form)

*They are needing help to finish.

*He is loving her.

He's loving living in New York. (informal) (static–ongoing)

*I am missing my family.  

¹I am missing my keys. "not in possession of" (inf.) (static– ongoing, temporary) 

~ I am hating this.  (informal) (static–ongoing)

*I am appreciating your help.

Our house is appreciating. (gaining in value)

~ I'm liking this.  (inf.) (static– ongoing, temporary) 

~How are you liking your new school?

~I am feeling strongly about this.  (informal, ongoing) 

 

*not used / ~ questionable usage; not preferred usage; requires a special context;

cognitive (adj) – the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.

mental (adj) – of or pertaining to the mind (Also used for those affected by mental illness or impairment)

¹ miss (v.) — discover or feel the absence of (Normally, it used to express the absence of a person or persons. But also used for something that is temporarily lost.)

My keys are missing.— (adj.) – lost  (Swan 352)  There is something missing. (Huddleston 170, 1438)

I am missing my keys. — (static verb) — experiencing an ongoing, temporary loss  (informal) "not in possession of";  Are you missing something?  (used with an inanimate object such as keys, cell phone, wallet.)  See Active Experience below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cognitive Processing

Changing State of Mind

 

 

 

Expressing Cognitive Change

INFINITIVE PHRASE

Cognition is usually expressed with a nonprogressive verb; however, it can be expressed as an ongoing process (a state undergoing change) by using an infinitive phrase.

He's starting to think about finding a new job.

We are beginning to understand the problem.

They are  trying to remember what happened.

They are starting to realize what they can do.

They are continuing to appreciate their situation.

PRESENT PERFECT

Not all, but some "cognitive" verbs can express an ongoing state by using the present perfect, which indicates an action that began in the past and continues up until the present.

He has been thinking about finding a new job.

She has been wanting to go to college.

He has been liking his new job.

We have been loving our new car. (enjoying)

She has been missing her family. (feeling homesick) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Changing Usage

Active Experience

How are you liking your food
 

 

Expressing Experience—New vs. Traditional

NEWER USAGE

The examples below have been in use since the 1980s (or earlier.) The informality could be appealing to the customer, putting the customer at ease, or it could be annoying to the customer, having to listen to affected speech.

How are you liking your food?  (restaurants: ongoing sensory experience; enjoy)

How are you liking your new school?  (active adjustment period)

McDonald's:   I'm lovin' it!

 

TRADITIONAL USAGE

In traditional use, like and love are not used in the progressive form. They are states of mind.  No amount of time will change whether you do or do not like or love something. Nonprogressive is the more formal usage.

How do you like your food.

 

How do you like your new school. (emotional response)

I love it.   (Is is someone taking action to do something or is someone experiencing something passively?) 

 

affected spech (adj.) – artificial or unnatural sounding, overly solicitous

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Changing How We Think

doughnut
 

 

Present or present progressive?

  1. Select the response from the menu that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

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