Implied Meanings

Interpret meaning with adverbs

pilot
 

 

Present Perfect Aspects (duration, completion, frequency)

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE — TIMING

The present perfect progressive examples below differ in aspect; that is, how the action relates to the flow of time: ongoing (duration), ongoing (repetitive, habitual),  ongoing (temporary) or ongoing (relative to another activity).

DURATION — NOT COMPLETED

I have been flying planes for eight years.

The adverb specifies the quantity of time.

I have been flying a Boeing 777 since 1995.  

REPETITION — NOT COMPLETED

I have usually been flying northern routes over the poles.

The adverb sets the frequency for the ongoing activity.

II have been flying overseas trips every  Tuesday and Wednesday.

SHORT DURATION — NOT COMPLETED

I have been flying as a reserve pilot this year.

The adverb sets the duration time, the boundaries.

I have been test-flying a Boeing 787.   

The context indicates a short term activity.

BACKGROUND

I have raised three children while he has been flying planes around the world.

The context contrasts a long term activity in the background with a completed focus activity in the foreground "has raised three children".

PRESENT PERFECT — TIMING

Similarly, the present perfectexamples below differ in aspect: ongoing (duration specified), completed (recently), ongoing (permanent) or completed (experience in unspecified past).                                                                            

DURATION — POSSIBLY COMPLETED

I have worked as a pilot for fifteen years

The adverb specifies the quantity of time.

I have been a pilot since 1990

The adverb specifies the start time.

NO DURATION — COMPLETED

We have already filed our flight plan for today.

The adverb specifies completion.

We have just requested permission to land.  a moment ago, recently

LONG DURATION — NOT COMPLETED

The FAA has regulated flight inspection in the US.  no adverb

The adverb specifies duration—past to present.

Boeing has built aircraft for defense and commercial operations. no adverb

DURATION UNKNOWN — COMPLETED

I have flown planes before.  (indefinite past)

The adverb specifies experience in the past, but the location of time in the past is unknown.

 

A process verb has a meaning of occurring gradually over a period of time (duration). When no adverb is used, we understand the timing of the activity as occurring in the indefinite past.

A punctual verb has a meaning of taking place with a clear beginning and end.  The situation has a terminal point beyond which it cannot continue.

Aspect — how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time—a single point of time, a continuous range of time, a sequence of discrete points in time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect

Present Perfect Adverbs

 

 

Present Perfect and Present Perfect Progressive

ADVERBS FOR PRESENT PERFECT & PROGRESSIVE

Adverbs used with present perfect tell us when: how long or since when, and they express complex aspects such as frequency of occurrence, experience, recency, repetition or speaker's expectation for completion.  Present perfect sentences focus on the duration of time more than the activity.                  

SINCE/FOR SO FAR /THIS… RECENTLY

Use with activities that began in the past and continue to the present. 

Use with activities that began in the indefinite past and continue to the present.  

Use with activities that are completed but still within the speaker's present frame of mind.

since 6:00 AM (exact time – midnight, noon, this morning, July 2012)

so far( to date, up to now, until now)

recently

for a minute (hour, day, week, month, year, decade, the time being)

over the past year (weeks, decades, centuries)

lately

ever since then (Saturday, January, 2009, I met you) 

in my life (second, a while, an hour, the coming week,)

just

 

tonight(today ) (a time not yet passed)

 

 

this week (morning,  evening, week, month, year)

 

ADVERBS FOR PRESENT PERFECT & PROGRESSIVE

Present perfect progressive sentences tend to focus more on the activity — its repetition (several times) or ongoing (still) duration. Most present perfect adverbs are used with the progressive. However, an adverb of repetition is not generally used (and is awkward) with the progressive because the tense already has the meaning of repetition.

ALREADY / YET FREQUENCY REPETITION

Use with activities that occur earlier or later than the speaker expects.

Use with habitual activities beginning in the past and continuing to now.

Use with non-progressive verbs to express past repeated activity that continues.  

already (earlier than expected)

always (routinely, customarily, normally, as a rule)

repeatedly

yet (later than expected)

usually (most of the time, in general)

several times (instances, occasions) nonprogressive tense only

still (ongoing)

often (frequently, half of the time)

continuously (continually)

 

finally (later than expected)

sometimes (occasionally, on occasion)

again and again (over and over, time after time)

 

rarely (seldom, hardly ever, not ever, never)

 

 

 

 

 

Sentences with Present Perfect Adverbs

PRESENT PERFECT NONPROGRESSIVE

Adverbs used with present perfect nonprogressive focus on the situation or activity. The nonprogressive form is commonly used with a verb that expresses an activity that occurs over time without a terminal point, a "process" verb.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

He has always  worked as a pilot. duration, permanent

SO FAR

He has flown 90,000 miles so far.

THIS

He has traveled a lot this year.

SINCE / FOR

He has flown aircraft for twelve years / since 1998.

RECENCY

He hasn't flown to South Africa lately.
 

ALREADY / YET

They have already  refueled the aircraft.

SEVERAL TIMES

They have replaced the tires several times.

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

 Adverbs used with present perfect progressive focus on the timing of the situation or activity. The progressive form is commonly used with a verb that expresses an activity that has a beginning and end-point, a "punctual" verb.

ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

They have frequently been updating their skills.

SO FAR

He has been managing his jet-lag well so far.

THIS

They have been reviewing emergency procedures this year.

SINCE / FOR

They have been traveling overseas for twelve years / since 1998.

RECENCY

He has been feeling tired lately.

ALREADY / YET

We have  already been discussing the improvements. 

SEVERAL TIMES

*They have been discussing the problem several times.

 

jet-lag (n.) – a temporary disruption of the body's normal biological rhythms after high-speed air travel through several time zones

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

A Street Entertainer – "The World Famous Bushman"

The Bushman of Fisherman's Wharf
 

 

Read Context

David Johnson, known as the World Famous Bushman, is a street performer who has been entertaining passers-by (tourists) along Fisherman's Wharf in San Francisco since 1980. He began the bush man act in order to be original (and to collect money.)  So what is the World Famous Bushman act?  David Johnson hides behind some eucalyptus branches and waits for people to walk by.   As they pass, he jumps out and surprises them by yelling "Ugga-bugga!"    Some of the people he surprises laugh, while others have gotten angry and have called the police.

Crowds have been gathering across the street from where he usually sits to see Johnson entertain people.  In a "good year", Johnson claims he has earned as much as $60,000. 

He has been employing a bodyguard to protect him against attacks by people who are unhappy with him and to let Johnson know if elderly people are coming so he can avoid scaring them.

The police have recently received a number of complaints about the Bushman, and Fisherman's Wharf merchants have been trying to shut him down.  In 2004, he was charged with four misdemeanors by the police, but a jury cleared him.  The city District Attorney has given up pursuing him: "the community has spoken". 

If you haven't seen him yet, go to San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf and beware of that clump of leaves that looks like a bush. 

clump (n.) – a small, close group or cluster, especially of trees or other plants

eucalyptus (n.) – a tall tree that produces an oil with a strong smell, used in medicines

jury (n.) – a group of 12 ordinary people who listen to the details of a case in court and decide whether someone is guilty or not

misdemeanors (n.) – small crimes, unacceptable behavior

wharf (n.) – a structure built on the shore of or projecting into a harbor, stream, etc., so that vessels may be moored alongside to load or unload or to lie at rest; quay; pier.

More images on YouTube and Wikipedia– The World Famous Bushman

 

 

 

 

 

Complete the sentence.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 1-10" button at the bottom, or click the check button to the left  as you go.

 

1.
David Johnson has been entertaining passers-by along Fisherman's Wharf since 1980.


2.
Some people have gotten angry and called the police.


3.
Crowds have been gathering across the street from where he usually sits, to see Johnson entertain people.


4.
Johnson claims he has earned as much as $60,000.


5.
He has been employing a bodyguard to protect him . . .


6.
The police have recently received a number of complaints about the Bushman . . .


7.
Fisherman's Wharf merchants have been trying to shut him down.


8.
The city District Attorney has given up pursuing him: . . .


9.
"the community has spoken"

10.
If you haven't seen him yet, go to . . .