Just / Recently

Relate the past to the present time frame

 

Present State of Mind
 

 

A distant memory vs. still in mind

PAST TENSE

A distant memory — The event no longer affects the speaker's present thoughts. The speaker has moved on. The adverb, if one is used, indicates a specific time.

Jason finished his project this morning.  Afterwards, he played soccer.

Jason finished his thesis.  Later, he began to gather his research.

Jason finished his studies this month.  He did very well.

Jason graduated this year. Then he traveled for a month.

Jason used to call every week. Then he stopped calling last week.

PRESENT PERFECT

Still in mind — the event still affects the speaker's present thoughts.  The speaker is still "in the moment." The adverb indicates an indefinite time, relative to "now" or sometime within a time period.

Jason has just finished his project. He's so happy about it. (relative to his "now")

Jason has recently finished his thesis.  He's preparing to defend it. (relative to his "now")

Jason has finished studies this month. He's considering a job. (sometime within the month)

Jason has graduated this year. He's quite accomplished. (sometime within the year)

Jason hasn't called me lately. He must be busy. (relative to my "now")
 

 

lately - used in questions or negative sentences 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Just / Recently / Lately

Word order

 

 

 

Sentence Position — just / recently / lately

INITIAL MEDIAL FINAL

Just or recently is placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis.  Use a comma after the adverb.  Note that just and lately are not used in the initial position.

Just or recently is commonly placed after the auxiliary verb and before the main verb.   Note that lately is not used in the medial position.

Recently or lately is commonly placed at the end of the sentence when not emphasized. Note just is not used in the final position.

Just, we have seen Jason. incorrect

We have just seen Jason.

We have seen Jason just. (incorrect.)

Recently, we have seen Jason. 

We have recently seen Jason.

We have seen Jason recently.

Lately, we haven't seen Jason. 

We haven't lately seen Jason. incorrect

We haven't seen Jason lately.

Lately, have you seen Jason? incorrect

Have you lately seen Jason? incorrect

Have you seen Jason lately?
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect

Adverbs for Recency

thinking
 

 

Adverbs for Recent Activity

RECENT PAST — SPECIFIC

The adverbs just and recently are used to report something that happened in the past with emphasis on "a short time ago." Note that "recent" is relative — a moment ago, a month ago, a decade ago.

They got married recently.

They were just married.

They went shopping not too long ago.

They were married this month (week, year, season, semester – time that has passed)

RECENT PAST — RELATIVE TO NOW

More commonly, just and recently are used with the present perfect tense. The adverbs indicate an indefinite, relative time rather than a specific time. In these examples, a recent past activity is relative to a current or future activity.

They have gotten married recently.   is relative to   They are buying  new home.

They have just gotten married.   is relative to  They are leaving on their honeymoon tonight.

They've been shopping for furniture lately.   is relative to   Their new things are arriving this afternoon.

They have both started new jobs this month.  is relative to  They are getting used to their busy schedules.  (this week, year, season, semester) 

 

Also see Adverbs of Time  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect

Have / Be Finished

 

A man is finished cleaning up his garage.
 

 

Is finished the past-participle verb form or a participial adjective?

HAVE FINISHED — PRESENT PERFECT

Have with the participle finished or done expresses recent completion (present perfect). The emphasis is on timing. Some people regard the alternate form  be finished as informal. While the two forms are/were related in form  their meanings nowdiffer. Compare:

I have finished just, recently

I have finished my work. object

~I have finished with my work.  prep. phrase

I have finished doing my work.  gerund

I have done my work.  just, recently

I have completed my work.  just, recently

TEST FOR VERB PROPERTIES

I finished. (1) Can it be marked for tense? Yes.

He finishes. (2) Can it be marked for person? Yes.

Did he finish? (2) Does it use do-support? Yes.

 

 

BE FINISHED— "READY"

Be with the participle finished or done expresses a state of personal readiness to move on and do something else. Interpreting the subject as the recipient of an action, is illogical. (The person has not undergone a process.) The meaning is more like "ready". Test it for its word form properties.

I am finished "ready to do something else"

I am finished *my work does not take an object

I am finished with my work. prep phrase

I am finished doing my work.  gerund

The work is finished inanimate object preferred

I am done "ready", "through"

~I am completed "You complete me. / I am completed by you" (emotionally)

TEST FOR ADJECTIVE PROPERTIES

*I am a finished person. (1) Can it modify a noun? No.

*I seem finished(1) Can it complement a be-like verb? No.

*I am very finished(2) Can it be modified by a degree adverb–very or too? No.

TEST FOR VERB PROPERTIES

I was finished. (1) Can it be marked for tense? Yes.

He is finished. (2) Can it be marked for person? Yes.

Do you be finished?  (3) Does it use do-support? No.

Are you finished? / Are you tired? 

 

*not used / ~ uncommon, questionable use, requires a special context

done (= finished) when used as an adjective, is sometimes criticized, but the word has been so used since the 15th centruey, <call me when you're done>. Many stylissts prefer through <call me when your're through>. (Garner 273)

Merriam-Webster estimates be finished came into usage in the US in the 19thC mostly with an inanimate subject ("his business was fiished"). M-W cites Otto Jesperson as having found be finished in use as early as 1766; "chiefly found in ordinary speech". (445)

Finished can be used as an adjective meaning "ready". Is the report finished yet?  With personal subjects, to be finished is often used in an informal style with the same meaning as to have finished. How soon will you be/have fiished? (Swan 205)

Test for adjective properties includes (1) can it modify a noun (2) can it complement a be verb, a static verb (e.g., become, seem, appear, act, look); (3) can it be modified by a degree adverb (e.g., very, so, completely, partly).  (Huddleston 533, 541)

See Particpl Modifiers 1  / Verb or Adjective?  (tests for an adjective) / be used to

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

Where did you go on your vacation? 
I have been to the beach this summer.

Solution - lightbulb Pop-Q "Source"  

Oh dear!  Look what he has just done

Uncommon use of present perfect.

Where have you just bought those jeans?

Uncommon use of present perfect.

I have seen them lately.    

 

He has arrived lately.  We had to wait for him.

 

SOLUTION

Where did you go?  The question places emphasis on where not duration. (source)
I went to the beach this summer.  The response states location with no particular interest in time.

Where have you beenThe question places emphasis on the duration of a recent activity.
I have been relaxing on the beach. The response states a recent activity having duration. 

Look what he just did!

Use the past tense for an emotional outburst.

Where did you just buy those jeans?

Use the past tense for reporting source.

I have seen them recently.   Use recently in place of lately in a statement.
Have
you seen them lately? Use lately in a question.
I haven't seen them lately.   Use lately in a negative sentence.
The adverb lately is used in questions or negative sentences.  

He arrived late. / He was late.    late (adj.) – past the expected time, tardy 
Lately, he has been arriving late to work.    lately (adv.) – recently 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 

Office Chit-Chat

meeting
 

 

Read for Errors

Anne:  I think it's time to go home.
Bella:  No, not quite. It's still a bit early.

Anne: But we completed all of our work.
Bella: Have you lately looked at your watch?

Anne: I have, but I don't see why we can't leave early.  I did a lot of work today. Look.
Bella: I see. However, I saw the boss coming down the hall now.

Anne: Why do you think he is coming here just now?
Bella: Perhaps, he has heard that one of his employees likes to leave early.

Anne: Are you pulling my leg? 
Bella:  Yes, I have just joked.  He left lately.

Anne: My watch say five o'clock. Let's go.
Bella: We put in our eight hours.

 

 

 

 

Decide on which tense can complete the sentence.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.