Present Progressive

Express activity that is temporary or at the moment of speaking

jogging

 

Permanent vs. Temporary

LONG-TIME HABIT

Present nonprogressive expresses that activities are routine, long-term habits.

NP VERB – PRESENT ADV – FREQUENCY

Helen

runs

often.

Helen

takes

classes every day.

She

runs

often.

TEMPORARY   OR AT THE MOMENT

Present progressive expresses that activities (1) are temporary, a change from the usual activities; or (2) are happening at the moment of speaking. 

NP VERB – PRES. PROG. ADV –  "THIS" / "NOW"

Helen

is running

outside this month.

outside right now.

Helen

is taking

is attending

a math class this semester.

the class today.

Helen

is listening

is listening

to a new playlist this month.

to a new song at the moment.

 

 Also see At the Moment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Adverbs

Permanent – Temporary

 

 

 

Present Tense Adverbs

PRESENT – (MORE) PERMANENT

Adverbs for the present tense indicate a more permanent state and tell how often an activity occurs or is repeated. ¹Statements of fact or general truth rarely occur with adverbs.  

EVERY ... FREQUENCY

every day  (night, week, month, year, etc.)

always (routinely, customarily, as a rule)

each day  (night, week, month, year, etc.)

usually (most of the time, in general, normally)

every other day  (night, week, year, etc.)

often (frequently, half of the time)

most weekends (nights, weeks, months, etc.) 

sometimes (occasionally, on occasion)

GENERAL TRUTH

general truth¹ (no adverb)

rarely (seldom, hardly ever, never, not ever)

 

never (not ever)

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE – TEMPORARY

Adverbs for the present progressive indicate a more temporary state, at the moment of speaking. The focus is on the present time period, with a larger range of time, for example this month, and not on time that has passed.

NOW THIS ...

at the moment

today / tonight (word origin – this day, this night) 

now (for now, just now)

this morning

currently

this week

presently

this month

for a little while (for the time being)

this semester

as we speak

this year

*Also ee  Adverbs of Frequency    Adverbs of Time

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Traditional and Linguistic Description

 

 

 

Traditional and Linguistic Description

TRADITIONAL / ESL DESCRIPTION LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION

In traditional grammar, auxiliary verbs (linking verbs) are treated as auxiliary combinations with other verbs (verb groups). Verbs are "grouped". Aux Verb Diagrams 

Simple Present  "The simple present says that something was true in the past, is true in the present, and will be true in the future. It expresses general statements of fact and general truths." (Azar  2-1)

Present Progressive "The present progressive expresses an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking. It is temporary activity that began in the past, is continuing at present, and will probably end at some pont in the future." (Azar 2-2)

Form: Be + -ing (present participle)  [No grammar term is given for "be".]

________________________

"simple present" or "present simple" — General Time: for permanent situations, or about things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time" (Swan 463)

"present progressive" or "present continuous" Around Now (1) temporary, continuing situations that are going on now or 'around now': before, during and after the moment of speaking; (2) repeated actions happening around the present. (3) developments and changes. (Swan 464)

Form: am / are / is + -ing

 

 In current linguistic analysis, auxiliaries are main verbs followed by gerund-participle or past participle verb forms in subordinated nonfinite clauses. In this example, the auxilary is followed by a gerund participle.  (Huddleston 104,1218) Also see Secondary Verbs (nonfinite).  Click the tree to see a more detailed tree.

 

KELLOGG-REED PARSE DIAGRAM TREE DIAGRAM

Helen is jogging around the track.

Diagram: Helen is jogging around the track.     

More detailed tree.

CATEGORIES:  NP –noun phrase; N – noun; VP – verb phrase; V – verb; Detdeterminer; PP – prepositional phrase; P – preposition; AdvP – adverb phrase; Adv – adverb; AdjP– adjective phrase; Adj – adjective

FUNCTIONS: Subject:  Subject,   Predicate: Predicator (V) Complements: (elements required by verb) Object, Indirect Object, Predicative Complement  Adjuncts: (optional modifiers) Adj, Adv

 Also see Reed-Kellogg diagram.

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Changes in Habits

couch potato
 

Present or present progressive?

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button to the right.

 

Paragraph 1

1.
 
 

compete (v.) - take part in a sports competion  An athlete competes to win.

 

 

Paragraph 2

2.
 
 

skip (v.) - to not do a usual habit or activity.

 

 

 

Paragraph 3

3.
 
 

 

 

Paragraph 4

4.
 
 

Related page: Stative Verbs – verbs that do not take the progressive tense  

 

 

Paragraph 5

5.
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Laid Off!

Laid off
 

 

Paragraph 6

6.
 
 
 

 

 

Paragraph 7

7.
 
 
 
 

Related page Time-Relative Events "until"