Grammar-QuizzesVerb PhrasesVerb Complements › Participle Summary

Participles (-ed /-ing)

Summary of Practices

 

 

Participles as Modifiers 1:  contrast the receiver vs. the source of the experience

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

 clown juggling

The act was entertaining

We were entertained.

 

It was an entertaining act.

The highly entertained audience sat silently.

Participles as Modifiers 2: contrast an on-going process or a completed state

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

roasted chicken 

a roasting chicken - still cooking! 
a  roasted chicken - done!

A recently spotted owl was making a nest. (seen)
A spotted owl nests in spring. (natural appearance)

A sleeping dog should not be awakened. (ongoing)
A sleeping bag is required for camping. (function)

Gerund-Participle: Is there a difference?  Compare the functions of -ing word forms

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

part of speech?
 

The endings of those movies were disappointing. (SUBJ)

The movies were ending without finishing the story. (PRED)

Ending the movie production was difficult. (SUBJ)

The director began ending the movie production. (COMP)

The production ending in June will be shown in theaters in August. (MODIFIER)

Participle Modifier Quiz: auto-correcting quiz

Intermediate–Advanced ESL

my old house

I was surprised to see how much the neighborhood had changed. (past participial adjective)

It was surprising to see how much the neighborhood had changed.  (present participial adjective)

We saw broken windows. (past participial adjective)

We heard breaking news. (present participial adjective)

 

Participle w/ Prep: express reaction to circumstances or things

Intermediate–Advanced ESL

pleased

The children were interested in hearing his story.
The press was excited about the President's speech.

The President is pleased with the response.
The President is pleased with how the people responded.

He is interested in and excited about his new project.

Clause Reduction 1: shorten modifying clauses with be verb forms

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

talk show 

 The seat [that was] next to me was empty.


The woman [who is] seated behind me is eating popcorn. 


A talk show [which is] trying to improve its rating may plan a fight. 

 

Clause Reduction 2: reduce modifying clauses with active verb forms

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Congress 

 The subcommittee [which meets] next week will discuss a new bill.


 The subcommittee meeting next week will discuss a new bill.

Past Participle Clauses: reduce passive sentences to past-participial modifying clauses

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Golden Gate Bridge

The Golden Gate Bridge, [which was] designed by Charles Ellis, ...


The Golden Gate Bridge, designed by Charles Ellis, ...

Present Participle Clauses: reduce active sentences to present-participle modifying clauses

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

alcatraz

The federal agency, which was locating the prison on Alcatraz,
preferred the isolated location of the island.


The federal agency, which was located in San Francisco,
preferred the isolated location of the island.

Irreg Verb Forms 1: practice using irregular present, past and participle verb forms

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

Jaycee

Jaycee (spinned, span, spun?) _____the ball on his toe last night.

Irreg Verb Forms 2: practice using irregular present, past and participle verb forms

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

Jamie

Jamie (let) _____the ball drop in yesterday's final play.

Finite / Nonfinite: recognize two clause categories (with primary and secondary verbs)

Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

Charlie dislikes sitting all day

Charlie wants to raise his hand.

Charlie likes raising his hand.

Charlie, annoyed, raised his hand.

Nonfinite Clauses—Timing & Voice: express earlier, same or later timing  (active & passive)

Intermediate–Advanced ESL

door unlocked

Jack seems to have left the door unlocked. (earlier)

He should have known better. (earlier)

Jack remembers having left in a hurry. (earlier)

He admits to being preoccupied. (same time)

He was told to lock the door. (same time)

He plans to double-check the door before leaving. (later)