Nominal Clause Summary (noun clauses / reported speech / indirect speech)

Diagnostic

Nominal Clause Diagnostic: identify specific points that need review

Reported Speech—Questions

Wh-Question Clauses: restate quoted questions within statements (Indirect or Reported Speech)

A friendly greeting

My friend said, "How are you?"

My friend asked how I was.

Yes/No-Question Clauses: restate quoted questions (Indirect or Reported Speech)

Man asking questions

My friend said, "Are you coming with us?"

My friend asked whether I was going with them.

Statement Clauses: restate quoted speech (Indirect Speech)

Couple under umbrella

She said, "It's raining here."

She said that it was raining there.

Said Synonyms: explore other words for reporting speech (Indirect Speech)

speaker

She said to me that it is nearby.
She told me that it is nearby.
She added that it is nearby.

Reported Speech—Imperatives / Subjunctive

Imperative Clauses: restate commands

A girl resting

The doctor said, Get some rest."

The doctor said to get some rest.

The doctor said (that) I should get some rest.

The doctor told me to get some rest.

The doctor advised that she get some rest.

Order + Noun + Infinitive: Impose will on others

Judge

The judge ordered John to leave.  

The judge ordered that John leave.  (Verb uses base form, no -s.)

Subject/Object Content Clauses

That–Clause:  embed a content clause within a main clause

John Glenn NASA

The need for more people in math and science is clear to all.

That we need more people in math and science is clear to all.

It Subj Placeholder: use it to refer to a moved content clause

Fred Armisen and Barak Obama

It is obvious to all that Fred is a funny comedian.
That Fred is a funny comedian  is obvious to all.

It amazed us what he said.
What he said amazed us.

It was a particularly funny joke.
There was a particularly funny joke.

What– Clauses (Phrases): shift emphasis to another sentence part 

comedian

What he said  was funny.  (that + which he said)

What was funny  was his expression

 

The Reason Is + Cls: specify reason by grouping or moving content

Hire me

The reason (that he can't find a job) is the weak economy.
He can't find a job because the economy is weak.

The reason is logical.   "be - decribing"
The reason is the economy. "be - specifying"

→The reason is that the economy is weak.
~The reason why is that the economy is weak.
~The reason is because the economy is weak.
~The reason for that is that the economy is weak.

Cleft Sentences:  shift emphasis by grouping and moving content

energy!

His energy amazed me

What amazed me was his energy.

His energy was what amazed me.

It amazed me that he had so much energy.

Nominal Clause Quizzes

Nominal Clause Quiz: auto-correcting quiz

cats everywhere

The old lady next door must have a lot of cats. I don't know how many ____.

Report Speech Quiz: practice reported speech; auto-correcting quiz

runners

"I've been running about five years now."

The runner replied that ____.

Review

Ch 12 Noun Clauses: review noun clauses

computer maze

Do you know ____?


(where will the meeting be / where the meeting will be)

Noun Suffixes (Nominal Suffixes): form nouns from other word forms

A spectacular sunset

Our plane arrived at noon. (verb form)

The arrival of our plane was at noon. (noun form)

We departed on time. (verb form)

Our departure was on time. (noun form)

Our landing was on time. (noun form)

 

 

If / Whether:  state a condition or an alternative

cell reception on a mountain top

I don't know if my cell phone will work here.
I don't know whether my cell phone will work here.


I don't know whether or not my cell phone will work if I use it here.
       (alternative - whether or not)             (condition)

Cleft Sentences:  shift emphasis to other sentence parts by moving content

energy!

His energy amazed me

What amazed me was his energy.

His energy was what amazed me.

It amazed me that he had so much energy.

Wh-ever Phrases: refer to an unknown one

gossip 

Whatever you say is confidential.

You can take whomever you want.

Whatever way will be fine.

Whatever!