Content Clauses (noun/embedded/reported speech clauses)

 

Content Cls Diagnostic: subordinate clause diagnostic (noun clauses)

hanging out

Quiz 1: beginning – intermediate

Quiz 2: intermediate – advanced

Reported Speech

Wh-Question Clauses: restate a question within a clause (Indirect or Reported Speech)

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

A friendly greeting

My friend said, "How are you?"

My friend asked how I was.

She asked, "When are you going there?

She asked when are you going there?

She asked when I was coming here. (deixis)

Yes/No-Question Clauses: restate a question within a clause (Indirect or Reported Speech)

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Man asking questions

My friend said, "Are you coming with us?"

My friend asked whether I was going with them.

Statement Clauses: restate quoted speech within a clause (Indirect Speech)

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Couple under umbrella

She said, "It's raining here."

She said that it was raining there.

Said Synonyms: explore other words for reporting speech (Indirect Speech)

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

speaker

She said to me that it is nearby.
She told me that it is nearby.
She added that it is nearby.

Reported Speech—Imperatives / Subjunctive

Imperative Clauses: restate a command within a clause

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

A girl resting

The doctor said, Get some rest."

The doctor said to get some rest.

The doctor said (that) I should get some rest.

The doctor told me to get some rest.

The doctor advised that she get some rest.

Order + Noun + Infinitive: Impose will on others

Intermediate– Advanced ESL

Judge

The judge ordered John to leave.  

The judge ordered that John leave.  (Verb uses base form, no -s.)

Subject/Complement (Object) Content Clause

That–Clause:  embed a content clause within a main clause

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

John Glenn NASA

The need for more people in math and science is clear to all.

That we need more people in math and science is clear to all.

It Subj Placeholder: use it to refer to a moved content clause

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Fred Armisen and Barak Obama

It is obvious to all that Fred is a funny comedian.
That Fred is a funny comedian  is obvious to all.

It amazed us what he said.
What he said amazed us.

It was a particularly funny joke.
There was a particularly funny joke.

Other Clausal Types

What–Phrase: shift emphasis to another sentence part     "fused head"

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

comedian

What he said  was funny.  [that + which he said]

What was funny  was his expression

That  (pronoun) + which-clause

The Reason Is + Cls: specify reason by grouping or moving content

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Hire me

The reason (that he can't find a job) is the weak economy.
He can't find a job because the economy is weak.

The reason is logical.   "be - decribing"
The reason is the economy. "be - specifying"

→The reason is that the economy is weak.
~The reason why is that the economy is weak.
~The reason is because the economy is weak.
~The reason for that is that the economy is weak.

Cleft Sentences:  "information packaging"

Advanced ESL, Native Speaker

energy!

His energy amazed me

What amazed me was his energy.

His energy was what amazed me.

It amazed me that he had so much energy.

Subordinate Clause Quizzes

Subordinate Clause Quiz: auto-correcting quiz

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

cats everywhere

The old lady next door must have a lot of cats. I don't know how many ____.

Practice

Report Speech Quiz: practice reported speech; auto-correcting quiz

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

runners

"I've been running about five years now."

The runner replied that ____.

Review

Ch 12 Noun Clauses: review noun clauses

Intermediate– ESL

computer maze

Do you know ____?


(where will the meeting be / where the meeting will be)

Related Pages

Noun Suffixes: form nouns from other word forms

Beginning – Advanced ESL, native speakers

A jet landing

Our plane arrived at noon. (verb form)

The arrival of our plane was at noon. (noun form)

 

We departed on time. (verb form)

Our departure was on time. (noun form)

 

Our landing was on time. (noun form)

Landing was difficult.(gerund)

 

If / Whether:  state a condition or an alternative

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

cell reception on a mountain top

I don't know if my cell phone will work here.
I don't know whether my cell phone will work here.


I don't know whether or not my cell phone will work if I use it here.
       (alternative - whether or not) (condition)

Wh-ever Phrases: refer to an unknown one

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

gossip 

Whatever you say is confidential.

You can take whomever you want.

Whatever way will be fine.

Whatever!