Future Perfect

Express a future time as the "window" for viewing a second activity

board room with people working
 

 

Prediction 

PREDICTION

Will + verb expresses an activity we think, guess, know or predict will happen at a time later than the current time frame.  Will is used for stating information, calculations, or schedules.

FUTURE TIME FRAME

We will discuss this project
(scheduled) 

tomorrow.

We will present our project to our clients. 
(know, scheduled) 

before you arrive tomorrow.

They will want  to see the details of our work. (prediction, guess) 

The meeting will last  about two hours.
(calculation) 

A PREDICTION OF COMPLETION

Will have + participle expresses a prediction about an activity whose completion is relative to another future acitivity or time.  A by the time phrase or clause marks the relative time. 

SUBJECT END POINT

We will have discussed this project.

by tomorrow.

We will have presented our project to our clients. 

by the time you arrive.

We will have seen a great deal of detail

by the time we finish our presentation.

We will have lasted about two hours

by the time we finish our discussion.

 

clients (n.) – people or customers who request a service

Also see By the time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future Perfect

Expressing relative time

 

 

 

By the time vs. If

BY THE TIME

By the time expresses a time of completion relative to another activity.  X will already be done when (by the time) Y happens.

SUBJECT END-POINT  TIME

We will have left the office

by the time you arrive.

we will have invented more fuel-efficient cars 

by the year 2020.

IF

A future perfect clause followed by an if clause expresses the hypothetical completion of an activity under a particular condition.  X will already be done if Y happens.

FUTURE PERFECT CONDITIONAL TIME

We will have left the office

If you arrive after 5 p.m. 
(future hypothetical)

We would have invented more fuel-efficient cars 

if oil companies had not discouraged it. (hypothetical situation in the past that did not happen)

 

discourage (v.) – to persuade someone not to do something, especially by making it seem difficult or bad

fuel-efficient (adj.) — a fuel-efficient engine or vehicle burns fuel in a more effective way than usual, so that it loses less fuel

Related page: By the time 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future Perfect

Adverbs

 

 

 

Adverbs – future vs. future perfect

FUTURE

Future tense focuses on an activity in a time frame that is later than "now".  An adverb with an exact time or an indefinite time indicates when the activity will happen.  Note that duration adverbs (for, since) are not used.

FUTURE ADVERB / PREP PHRASE

We will finish our project

tomorrow, tonight, next week, next Saturday, next month(an indefinite time)  

 

by two o'clock.
(on or before this time)

 

when you arrive.
after you arrive.
before you arrives.

 

in a couple of hours.
(an indefinite time)

 

at two o'clock.
(a precise time)

 

*for two hours.
*since noon. (duration)

FUTURE PERFECT

Future perfect focuses on the completion time of an activity rather than the activity. By the time indicates the relative time (before and up to the end-point) of one activity. "Maybe before but no later than the time").

FUTURE PERFECT PREP PHRASE

We will have finished our project

by tomorrow, tonight, next week, next Saturday, next month.

 

by two o'clock,
(sometime before this time)

 

by the time you arrive.
(sometime before the beginning of this activity)

 

*in a couple of hours.
(an indefinite time)

 

*at two o'clock.
(a precise time)

 

*for two hours.
*since noon. (duration)

 

The adverb by with an exact time is used – the ending time at which the activity is completed. "Maybe before but no later than the time"

See By the time diagrams and By X time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future Perfect

Verb Agreement

 

 

 

SINGULAR

will have + participle    (not  has)

SINGULAR SUBJECT WILL HAVE + PARTICIPLE

By tomorrow, I

 

will have finished my book.

By tomorrow, he

will have finished his book.

By tomorrow, she

will have finished her book. 

PLURAL

will have + participle 

PLURAL SUBJECT WILL HAVE + PARTICIPLE

By tomorrow, we

will have finished our books.

By tomorrow, they

will have finished their books.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Smart vs. Fuelish Car

smart vs. gas-guzzler
 

 

Correct or Incorrect?

  1. Select a response correct or incorrect
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 1-5" button.

 

1.
At the end of this decade, many people will have bought fuel-efficient cars.

   

2.
In the next ten years, many people will have bought fuel-efficient cars.

   

3.
For the next ten years, many people will have bought fuel-efficient cars.

   

4.
By the end of this decade, many people will have bought fuel-efficient cars.

   

5.
By 2020, many people will have bought fuel-efficient cars.

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Raising a Baby

baby sleeping
 

 

Read the Context

By the time a child is one year old, she (wear) 3,500 diapers. A child (wear) diapers until 18 to 30 months old. When a child is two months old, she (begin) making sounds with her lips. By the time a child is five, he (develop) his ability and be able to speak in sentences. Each month, parents (spend) about about $900 per child on food, including lunch money. By the time a child is 15, he (visit) the doctor an average of 60 times!

As a teenager, a child (eat) up to three times more food. At age 16, the child (expect) to get his or her driver's license. By the time a child is 17, the parents (spend) $9,990 in health insurance. When the child is 17, she (consider) which college to attend. By the time the child is 18, he (cost) $426,190, including college tuition, to raise!

(Estimated amount is for a child raised in a suburb of a large U.S. city)

develop (v.) – grow or change into something bigger, stronger, more advanced

diaper (n.) – (US-Eng) a cloth or paper-like cover for a baby's bottom; nappies (Br-Eng)

license (US-Eng) / licence (Br-Eng) (n.) – a document that certifies your skill and permits you to operate or do business

tuition – money you pay to attend a school

Donna Freedman. "Cost to raise a child: As much as $399,780. MSN Money. Aug 14, 2013. Web. 23 Sep 2013.

 

 

 

 

 

Is the time a future prediction or a completion time?

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 6-16" button.

 

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