"It is"  Adj / Noun + Infinitive

Express opinion or advice

new studentslab technician
 

 

It (be) Adj + Infinitve Clause  vs. Gerund Clause (be) Adj

INFINITIVE CLAUSE

The expression "It is + adj/noun to" emphasizes information by bringing it to the front of the clause. The subject of an infinitive clause is optionally expressed as [for + noun] or the accusative pronoun [for + pronoun].  

MAIN CLAUSE PP COMPLEMENT
"IT" IS + ADJ "FOR" PRN INFINITIVE CLS

It's difficult

for me

to guess what will happen.

It's hard

 

to know when a rat will get loose.

It's impossible

for us

to do  this project in 24 hours

It's important

 

to take a break twice a day.

It's possible

for you

to work on your own project.

It's exciting 

for us

to be  here.

It's likely

for it

to get cold in the laboratory.

"IT IS"  + NP "FOR" PRN INFINITIVE CLS

It's a good idea (noun)

 

to put on your lab coat.

It's a pleasure (noun)

for us

to have you here.

It's an honor (noun)

for us

to work in this lab.

GERUND CLAUSE

A similar meaning is expressed with a gerund clause followed by [be] + adj / noun¹ However, the clause cannot be restated with a gerund clause when "it" refers to climate or weather.                                   

SUBJECT PREDICATE
GERUND CLS "BE" ADJ

Guessing what will happen.

is difficult.

Knowing when a rat will get loose.

is hard.

Doing this project in 24 hours

is impossible.

Taking a break twice a day.

is important

Working on your own project.

is possible.

Being here

is exciting

¹ Getting cold in the laboratory.  

is likely.

GERUND CLS "BE" + NP

Putting on your lab coat

is a good idea.   

Having you here

is a pleasure.

Working in this lab

is an honor.
 

 

Past tense "It was + adj…"

¹ The clause cannot be restated with a gerund clause when "it" refers to climate or weather.

Also see It–Subj Clauses , It Clefts  and It /There Pronouns 

Grammatical Functions: Subject – (Subj) the agent of the action; Predicate/Predicator – (Pred) the action or change in state; Complement – Comp  –  an element required to complete the subject and predicate; Adjunct – an element not required by the verb, a modifying word, phrase, clause; Supplement – a comment in the form of a word, phrase or clause that is loosely related to the central idea of the sentence.

Lexical Categories "Parts of Speech": N – noun / pronoun; NP – noun phrase; V – verb; VP – verb phrase; Adj – adjective; AdjP – adjective phrase; Adv – adverb; AdvP – adverb phrase; P – preposition; PP – prepositional phrase; Detdeterminers –  noun markers (e.g., articles, quantifiers, demonstratives, possessives); Subord – subordinator; Coord – coordinator; Interj – interjection; INF – infiniitve: GER – gerund; Nonfinite: an infinitive or gerund clause

 

 

 

 

 

Infinitive Clauses

Shortening that-clauses

 

 

 

It is adjective that…  / It is adjective for you to…

IT (ADJ) THAT + SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CLAUSE

It's + adj can be followed by a that-clause with should or a subjunctive verb to express a wish, recommendation or suggestion. The subject is mentioned in the clause.               

IT (BE) ADJ THAT  SUBJUNCTIVE CLS

It is important

that

you be careful at all times. 

It is a good idea (noun!)

that

Jack close all cages at night. 

It is essential

that

it go well. 

It's not necessary

that  

they work until 3 a.m.

It is rare

that  

we wear lab coats.

IT (ADJ) FOR + INFINITIVE CLAUSE

A similar meaning is expressed with It's + adj followed by an infinitive clause.  The subject (doer of the activity) in the infinitive clause can be included [for+ noun / pronoun].

IT (BE) ADJ FOR PRN INFINITIVE CLS

It is important

for you

to be careful at all times.

It is a good idea

for Jack

to close all cages at night.

It is essential

for it

to go well.

It's not necessary

for them 

work until 3 a.m.

It is rare

for us

to wear lab coats.  

 

Solution - lightbulbInfinitive Clause | Imperative Clauses (subjunctive) |  "Order" + Obj + Infin

 

 

 

 

 

 

It (adj) that…

Adjectives

 

 

 

It… that Pattern List

 

 

a fact

obvious

surprising

unfair

a well-known fact

apparent

strange

too bad

a little-known fact

clear

transparent

unfortunate

true

a blessing

a shame

a pity

 

 

 

 

 

 

It (adj) for…

Adjectives

 

 

 

It…for 

 

advisable

dangerous

difficult

easy

essential

exciting

a good idea  (noun)

good manners  (noun!)

hard

impolite

important

likely  (climate, temperature)

logical

necessary

not easy

not so hard

rare

rude

smart

wrong

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*It's kind for you to do that.  (not used)

*It's likely for you to come with us.

*It's important that they fixed it then because it was a big problem for them.

SOLUTION

It's kind of you to do that. 
The expression focuses on the speaker's opinion of person (you) not the speaker's opinion on how the activity positively or negatively affects the person
(you).

It is likely that you will come with us.

It's likely to rain today. 
Mostly used with weather, climate, temperature. See It /There Pronouns 

It was important that they fixed it then because it was a big problem for them.
Adjust the time frame to the rest of the clause even though the person is stating opinion in the present.

 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

Solution - lightbulb Pop-Q "Kind"

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice

Make the Effort to Speak the Language!

phrase book
 

 

Complete the expression.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Reviews of a New Product

tablet
 

 

Read for Errors

What do you think of this new tablet? 

It's surprising see that it is so light and clear.

It's hard for me understanding how it works.

It is exciting to see such an interesting design.

It's logical for everyone to use.

It's unfortunate it shows finger prints.

It amusing look right through it as you work.

It's hard to figuring out where the battery is.

It's no necessary to recharge the external battery every night because it lasts a long time.

It's important that they selected strong glass.

It is likely to appeal to a lot of people. I think it will be a "hot" item.

appeal (v.) – to be especially attractive, pleasing, interesting, or enjoyable

external (adj.) – outside not inside of something

figure out (verb phrase) – guess, imagine, understand

finger prints (n) – (dirty) marks left after touching it

a hot item (expression) – something that is popular and in demand

right (adv.) – directly

 

 

Correct or Incorrect?

  1. Select a response correct or incorrect.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 11-20" button.

 

11.
It's surprising see that it is so light and clear.

     

12.
It's hard for me understanding how it works.

       

13.
It is exciting to see such an interesting design..

     

14.
It's logical for everyone to use.

     

15.
It's unfortunate it shows finger prints.

     


16.
It amusing look right through it as you work.

     

17.
It's hard to figuring out where the battery is. 

     


18.
It's no necessary to recharge the external battery every night because it lasts a long time. 

     

19.
It's important that they they selected strong glass.    

     

extend (v.) – make longer, last longer

20.
It is likely to appeal to a lot of people. I think it will sell fast.

     

appeal (v.) – be desirable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Suggestions for Visiting a City

handpainted cermicscity street - Heraklion
 

 

Read

Going to a new city is exciting, and taking a tour is especially convenient for travelers. A tour will help you see a number of attractions in a relatively short time and will include professional guides who are trained to provide interesting historical details and stories for whatever site you are visiting.

Going through a museum is a good idea. Your guide will give you background information so that you will be able to appreciate and enjoy what you are seeing. Tipping your guide is an expected courtesy.

Travelers often worry about finding a safe, clean place to stay. However, finding a good place to stay is not so hard. If you buy a guidebook such as Frommer's or Michelein, you will find good advice. You will also find recommendations for restaurants. Tasting new food is a pleasure.

One thing that travelers often forget is comfort. Be sure to balance comfort with fashion. Taking an extra pair of shoes with you is smart.

You will enjoy walking through the street markets. Bargaining for a good price is fun. You'll find lots of things you will want. Buying small items is important because fitting extra things into your baggage is often difficult.   If you buy a few small things, you will have gifts for friends and some souvenirs of your trip. Having a memorable vacation is essential.  Your memories will help get you through the long year ahead until your next chance to take a vacation comes.

background information – general and specific details to improve understanding

courtesy (n.) – good manners or social conduct; polite behavior.

especially (adv.) – very, particularly

traveler (US-Eng) / traveler (Br-Eng) – a person who travels, goes to distant places

 

 

 

Change the focus from the activity to the speaker's opinion or advice about the activity.  Use "It (be)" in your response.

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 21-30" button.

 

21.
Going to a new city is exciting.   


22.
Taking a tour is especially convenient for travelers


23.
Going through a museum is a good idea.   


24.
Tipping your guide is an expected courtesy.


25.
However, finding a good place to stay is not so hard.


26.
Tasting new food is a pleasure


27.
Taking an extra pair of shoes with you is smart


28.
Bargaining for a good price is fun.


29.
Buying small items is important because fitting everything into your baggage is often difficult.


30.
Having a memorable vacation is essential.