Gerund Summary  (Gerunds / Participles / -ing Word Forms)


Cat awaiting bath time

Identify specific English grammar points that need review.


Gerund-Participle: Is there a difference?  Compare the functions of -ing word forms

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

part of speech?

The endings of those movies were disappointing. (SUBJ)

The movies were ending without finishing the story. (PRED)

Ending the movie production was difficult. (SUBJ)

The director began ending the movie production. (COMP)

The production ending in June will be shown in theaters in August. (MODIFIER)

Gerunds as Subjects

Gerund as Subject: specify activities 

Beginning–Intermediate ESL


Computers save a lot of time.

Using computers saves a lot of time.

Our using computers saves a lot of time.


Verbs with Gerund Complements

Verb + Gerund : express opinion or comment on activities

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

Pac Bell Park

Fans enjoys seeing a good game.

They don't mind sitting in the cold night air.

They hate seeing their team lose.

Verb+Prep Gerund: express opinion or comment on activities

Beginning–Advanced ESL

overworked man

He talks about leaving.

He accused us of complaining.

He keeps on making trouble.

He puts off and worries about making deadlines.

Gerund Cls w/Subj: express opinion or comment on the activities of others

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

Fixing door

I thanked him for fixing my door.

I appreciate his fixing my door.

Gerunds Expressions

By / With: state means or instrument— How do you do it?

Beginning–Intermediate ESL


You can open it by using a knife.

You can cut the string with a knife.

For + Gerund Clause: state the function of things— What is it for?

Beginning–Intermediate ESL


What's it for? It is for tying things together.

Why do you use it? to tie boxes.

How do you close boxes? with string / by using string.

Prep + Gerund Clause: relate one activity to another

Intermediate–Advanced. ESL

watching tv

Jason read the manual before beginning the installation.

You can't turn it on without plugging it in.

Jane got it working by using a different cable.

Sensory Verbs: relate direct experience

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

sheep on the road

He saw/ watched/ observed him working.

We found / caught him napping.

He had a hard time studying all night.

He sat/ stood watching TV.

Nonfinite Clause Forms: express timing and voice in gerund and infinitive clauses

Intermediate–Advanced ESL

Jack remembered leaving the door unlocked.

Jack remembered having left the door unlocked.

He remembered being distracted.

Jack remembered having been distracted.

Related Practices

Gerund / Infinitive Practice 1:  determine the word form that follows the verb

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

Opening day baseball

We intended to go to the game.

We didn't want to miss going to the game.

Gerund / Infinitive Practice 2:  determine the word form  that follows the verb

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

boy with bat and ball

He wanted to play professional baseball.

He dreamed about playing professional baseball.

Verb + Prep Phrase Prac 1: determine the preposition that follows the verb

Beginning–Intermediate ESL


She dreamed of becoming a ballet dancer.

She dreamed about becoming a ballet dancer.

Verb + Prep Phrase Prac 2: determine the preposition that follows the verb

Beginning–Intermediate ESL

Studying with Children

I put off going to college.

Instead, I took care of raising my two children.

Verb + Prep Phrase Prac 3: determine the preposition that follows the verb

Beginning–Intermediate ESL


Most people aren't accustomed to working hard.

If you try, you can succeed in doing anything you want.

By / With Prac: state means and method

Beginning–Intermediate ESL


You can get there by following a map.

You can find your way with a map.

Parallel Gerunds: use similar word forms in a series

Beginning–Intermediate ESL, Native Speakers

matched cherries on slot machine

He is very honest, kind and responsibility.

He is very honest, kind and responsible.

Gerunds in Context: identify gerund use

Intermediate–Advanced ESL, Native Speakers

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