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By / With Practice

State methods and means

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Method and Means — Getting There

BY + GERUND

A method of doing something can be expressed with a prepositional phrase that includes by + a gerund. (The prep. phrase is an "adjunct" to the main clause because the sentence can be considered complete without it.)

MAIN CLAUSE ADJUNCT
CLAUSE PP (P + GER CLS)

You can get there

by using a Google map.

You begin 

by going to Google.com and using the map link.

WITH + NOUN PHRASE

A means (instrument) for doing something is expressed with a prepositional phrase that includes with + a noun phrase (the tool or instrument).

MAIN CLAUSE ADJUNCT
CLAUSE PP (P + NP)

You can get there

with a Google map

You can get there

with a GPS device. 

 

there (adv.) –  see Adverbs–Object in Word Form

 Review page: By + Gerund

Lexical Categories: N – Noun; V – Verb; Aux – Auxiliary; Adj – Adjective; Adv – Adverb; P –Preposition; Det –Determiner.

Phrasal Categories: NP – Noun Phrase; VP – Verb Phrase; AdjP – Adjective Phrase; AdvP – Adverb Phrase; PP – Prepositional Phrase; DP – Determinative Phrase.

Clausal Categories: Cls – clause; F – finite clause; NF – nonfinite clause (Ger – gerund; Inf – infinitive; PPart – past participle).

Functions: Subj – subject; Pred – predicate/predicator; Compcomplement: elements required by an expression to complete its meaning (DO – direct object; IO – indirect object);  Adjunctadjunct: elements not required by an expression to complete its meaning (Subord – subordinator; Coord – coordinator); Suplsupplement: a clause or phrase added onto a clause that is not closely related to the central thought or structure of the main clause.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

How Do I Get There?

 

 

 

How do you get to the SFO airport from the College of San Mateo?

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your responses to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-15" button.

 

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Practice 2

Methods - Using the Right Tool

 

 

 

Complete the sentence with a by or with prepositional phrase.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 11-20" button at the bottom, or click the "Check" button to the left  as you go.

 

6.
wireHow do you pull a wire out of a small place?



7.
a screwHow do you put a screw into a light cover?



8.
a nailHow do you put a nail into wood ?



9.
a nutHow do you unscrew a nut on a pipe?


10.
a nutHow do you turn a small nut?



11.
a small treeHow do you cut a small tree?




     

12.
How do you measure something round?



 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Means and Methods in the Office

 

 

 

Edit for Errors

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check 21-30" button at the bottom, or click the "Check" button to the left  as you go.

 

13.


14.
ThumbtackHow do you pin a poster onto a bulletin board?


15.
tapeHow do you repair a tear on a page?


16.
diskHow do you move the cursor on the computer?


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20.
How do you measure a piece of paper?