Grammar-QuizzesVerb PhrasesVerb ComplementsGerunds › Prep. Phrases w/Gerunds

Before / After -ing (Adjuncts)

Relate a second activity with a reduced clause

watching tv
 

 

Adjunct Prepositional Phrases

PREPOSITION + NOUN PHRASE

A clause with an activity may befollowed by a prepositional phrase to add optional details about the activity.  The preposition may be complemented (completed) by a noun (N / NP) or in some cases (before, after, while) a clause. See Prep Complements.

MAIN CLAUSE ADJUNCT
CLAUSE PP = P + NP / CLAUSE

Jason read the manual

before the installation.

before he installed the system.

Jason said, "You can't turn it on

without a plug."

Jane got it working

with a different cable.

Jason was talking

about an action movie.

Jason was having vision problems

from the new TV.

Jane suggested a "night out"

instead of  TV at home. 

Jason thanked Jane

for her suggestion.   

Jason lectured

against unnecessary expenses.  

PREPOSITION + GERUND CLAUSE

 The preposition may also be complemented by a gerund clause (a nonfinite clause). The add-on clause is called an adjunct because the structure is not required to complete the meaning of the sentence (extra info). See Adjunct Prepositional Phrase in Connectives.

MAIN CLAUSE ADJUNCT
CLAUSE PP = P + GER CLS

Jason read the manual

before installing the system.

You can't turn it on

without plugging it in.

Jane got it working

by¹ using a different cable.

Jason was talking

about seeing an action movie.

Jason was having vision problems

from watching the new TV.

Jane suggested a "night out"

instead of watching TV at home.

Jason thanked Jane

for making her suggestion.

Jason lectured

against spending money.

 

Categories "Parts of Speech"

An important note about Prepositions — Linguistic research has provided us with a much more accurate description of English grammar than the one used in the 1900s-1950s. As a result, the category of Preposition has been widened to include words such as—before after, while, because, though, than, and as . Why? Linguistic analysis determined that these words functioned more similarly to prepositions than to conjunctions or any other category in which they had previously been placed. Furthermore, the description of the structures that can follow (complement) a preposition has been adjusted to include a wide a variety of other structures—at home (N), in the house (NP), out of the house (PP), in stead of later (NP+PP), after leaving (Ger), because we left (Cls). Thus, a prepositional phrase may include a content clause. See Prep Complements.

Related page: Adjunct Prepositional Phrase. (Temporal Adjunt Prepositional Phrases)

 

 

 

Preposition List

about

after

by

from

with

against

before

for

of

without

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*I drove there without stop.

 

He looked scared before jumping in the pool.

SOLUTION

I drove there without stopping.

He held his breath before jumping in the pool.
(Before relates two activities. The main clause cannot be a static verb.)

 

*Incorrect usage

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice

Managing Headaches

headache
 

 

Reword the sentence with a preposition + gerund expression.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-10" button at the bottom.

 

1.
Jack had a headache before breakfast.


 

2.
Jack prefers treating his headaches without medications.


3.
Sometimes, Jack gets rid of a headache with a cup of coffee.


4.
Too often, Jack is thinking about his job.


5.
Sometimes, he gets headaches from his anxiety.


6.
Jack prefers a project instead of a lot of unrelated jobs.


7.

8.
Jack is looking forward to a new job

Jack is looking forward to   a new job.

9.
For now, Jack is concentrating on his resumé.

For now, Jack is concentrating on  his resumé.

10.
For now, Jack is against any big moves.

For now, Jack is against   any big moves.