Verb + Gerund Clause

Express opinion or comment on activities

Pac Bell Park
 

 

Opening Day at the Ball Park

It's opening day at the ball park. The Giants deny feeling any added pressure to perform well on their first day back at the ball park. The fans anticipate seeing a lot of exciting games this season.  They will enjoy seeing the first of many balls fly over the brick wall into the McCovery Cove (the bay water behind the outfield). 

Fans say they miss coming to the ball park during the off season.  Now they are back!

They are arriving by bus, by train, by boat and by taxi. These fans certainly don't mind taking public transportation. They celebrate having an opportunity to attend a game.

The food vendors are back with some interesting new food choices.  Fans will enjoy exploring the new food options and will no doubt look forward to trying out Doggie Diner hot dogs, Gilroy Garlic fries, Crazy Crab cocktails, and much more.

 

 

 

 

Verbal Complements — Noun Phrase vs. Gerund Clause

VERB + NOUN PHRASE

A comment about an activity can be made with a verb that expresses attitude or opinon (see list below) followed by the activity— a noun or a noun phrase.

SUBJ PRED COMPLEMENT 
N VP NP

Fans

enjoy

the game.

Fans

prefer

seats near first base.

They

don't mind   

the night air.

Jason

likes

the atmosphere.  (the feeling of the place)

VERB + GERUND COMPLEMENT

A comment can also be made with a verb expressing attitude of opinion (see group in next section) followed by the activity—a gerund clause, also called a nonfinite clause.

SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT
N VP GERUND / GERUND CLS

Fans

enjoys

watching the game.  

Fans

prefers

sitting near first base.

They

don't mind   

sitting in the night air.

Jason

likes

watching the crowd.

 

¹gerund clause vs. phrase — in current linguistic analysis, the "phrase" is no longer used. Instead, a gerund and its modifiers are called a "gerund clause" or a nonfinite clause. See Grammar Notes (below). Also see Finite / Nonfinite.

 

Functions: Subject – the causer or doer of the action ; Predicate – the action; COMP – complement:  elements required by the verb to complete its meaning (direct object, indirect object, or predicative complement) ;  ADJUNCT: elements not required by the verb (adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, clauses)

Categories: N – noun; NP –noun phrase; V – verb; VP – verb phrase; GER – gerund; Nonfinite Clause: an infinitive or gerund clause (formerly "phrase")

Also see Noun vs. Gerund

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verbs with Gerund Complements

Express opinion or attitude

 

 

 

Verbs expressing opinions about activities

VERBS

Verbs followed by gerunds often have a meaning that expresses attitude or opinion about the following activity.

baseball boyHe hates missing a game.

disk jockeyHe enjoys creating new sounds.

weight lifterHe can't bear sitting still.

textingHe can't help texting all the time.

runnerThey postponed holding the marathon race.

SYNONYMS

Verbs with similar meanings (synonyms) also tend to be followed by a gerund or gerund clause. 

He detests / dislikes missing a game.

 

I love / like being a disk jockey.

I can't stand / hate sitting still (not moving)

I can't avoid texting all the time.

They delayed / put off holding the marathon race.

 

 

 

 

Verbs followed by gerunds

admit He admitted smoking marijuana.

delay They delayed leaving.

advise ³ He advised going to college.

allow ³ They allowed smoking outside.

avoid We avoid asking for help.

begin ¹ I begin working tomorrow.

can't stand I can't stand waiting.

celebrate He celebrated getting a job.

deny He denied stealing it.

deserve He deserves being in jail.

dislike He dislikes dressing up.

enjoy She enjoys dressing up.

forget ² I forgot turning the light off.

imagine He imagined being free.

love ¹ We love going on vacation.

mention He mentioned having dogs.

neglect ¹ I neglected doing my work.

postpone I postponed having kids.

prevent A polio vaccine prevents getting polio.

prohibit † They prohibit parking here.

regret ¹ I regret not being there.

remember ² I remember hearing it.

risk He risked losing everything.

start ¹ We started taking walks.

support He supported going to war.

tolerate We don't tolerate cheating.

like ¹ I like learning languages.

recommend I recommend staying.

anticipate I anticipate having fun.

appreciate She appreciates having help.

can't bear I can't bear hearing lies.

can't help I can't help sneezing.

complete He completed reading it.

consider He won't consider helping.

detest She detests exercising.

discuss We discussed going out.

escape He escaped getting married.

finish We finished watching TV.

hate ¹ She hates being alone.

keep We keep trusting him.

mind Do you mind smoking there?

miss I miss being home.

practice I practice playing the piano.

prefer ¹ We prefer eating early.

quit    I quit smoking.

recall She recalls being young.

resent † I resent being left alone.

resist I resist eating too much.

stop ² He stopped smoking.

suggest He suggested chewing gum.

try We tried eating snails.

understand I understand getting mad.

 

May be followed by a gerund or an infinitive:  ¹ without a change in meaning. / ² with a change in meaning.
May be followed by an indirect object: ³ and an infinitive. (He advised us to go to college.) / † and a gerund.  (She appreciates you for helping.)
May be followed by a that-clause. Subjunctive Verbs

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gerund or Infinitive

No change in meaning

 

 

 

Meaning is the same—gerund or infinitive

VERB + GERUND

Some verbs may be complemented by a gerund or an infinitive verb form without a change in meaning.

kid smashing guitarI love traveling.

doughnutI prefer dunking my doughnuts.

man pointing to bad sales on a chartHe deserves being in jail.

man losing his nerves at his deskI continue working out everyday.

VERB + INFINITIVE

The choice of a gerund or an infinitive does not change the meaning of the sentence.

I love to travel
(But not – I
would love to travel. – which expresses a wish.)

I prefer to dunk my doughnuts.

He deserves to be in jail.

I continue to work out everyday.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verbs that do not change meaning when followed by a gerund or infinitive object

attempt   I attempted to build / building a house.

begin       We began   to work / working.

can't bear  I can't bear to leave / leaving you.

can't stand  I can't stand to see / seeing waste.

continue  We continued to work / working all day.

deserve  He deserves to be / being in jail.

hate  I hate to miss / missing my bus.

like  I like to swim / swimming.

love  I love to travel / traveling

prefer  I prefer to walk / walking.

start  She started to cry / crying

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gerund or Infinitive

Contrast the meaning

 

 

 

Meaning Differs—gerund vs. infinitive

VERB BEFORE GERUND

Sometimes a verb has one meaning when followed by a gerund clause …

rememberI forgot locking the door.
(I can't remember the action.)

I remember locking the door.
(I remember the action.)

regret telling youI regret telling you the news.
(I wish I hadn't told you anything.)

wrenchThat failed, so I tried fixing it with a wrench.
(I used a new or different technique.)

healthyWe stopped eating hamburgers.
(We no longer eat hamburgers.)

VERB BEFORE INFINITIVE   (different meaning)

and has another meaning when followed by an infinitive.

door unlockedI forgot to lock the door.
(I didn't lock it.)

I remembered to lock the door.
(I locked it.)

men-regretI regret to tell you the news.
(I am sorry about what I need to tell you.)

plumberI tried to fix your sink with a wrench.
(I put in effort, I made an attempt.)

hamburgerWe stopped to eat hamburgers.
(We stopped our car in order to eat hamburgers.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verbs Followed by Gerunds

Passive Voice – "being"

 

 

 

Active vs. Passive Voice

ACTIVE

A sentence with a gerund can be restated in the passive voice, which focuses on the receiver of the action rather than the agent (cause or source).

The players avoided hitting balls towards the fans.

The fans kept on cheering for the players.
 

PASSIVE

Use being + participle form when forming a passive sentence, shifting the focus and moving the object to the subject position.

The fans avoided being hit by the players' foul balls.

The players kept on being cheered by the fans.

 

See Passive Verb Forms   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Double -ing Word Forms

"Switching"

Baby learning to swim
 

 

Gerund/ Infinitive Switching in Progressive Sentences

NONPROGRESSIVE VERB PROGRESSIVE VERB SWITCH STRATEGY

A nonprogressive verb followed by a gerund phrase sounds acceptable to a native speaker …

However, a progressive verb followed by a gerund form tends to sound awkward to a native speaker.  (two -ing forms together)  (Huddleston 14.5.6.1)

When possible, a native speaker will switch to an infinitive verb, a that-clause or a rephrasing after a progressive verb form.

Parents start teaching their children to swim early.

*Parents are starting teaching their children to swim early.

Parents are starting to teach their children to swim early.
(An infinitive form is used because it is possible after this verb.) 

Doctors suggest teaching children to swim early.

*Doctors are suggesting teaching children to swim early.

Doctors are suggesting that parents teach their children to swim early.
(A that-clause is used because an infinitive is not possible after this verb.) 

Doctors suggest teaching children to swim early.

*Doctors are suggesting teaching children to swim early.

*Not incorrect but awkward sounding.    

Doctors are suggesting the method of teaching children to swim early.
(Rephrasing with an object noun phrase is another way.) 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.
pop-question      Pop–Q "Suggest"  /  "Try

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Traditional and Linguistic Description

Advanced

 

 

 

Traditional Description and . Linguistic Descriptions

TRADITIONAL DESCRIPTION LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION

"Gerunds are used as objects of certain verbs." (Azar 14-3)

 

-ing forms are often used in similar ways to infinitives.  For instance, they can follow certain verbs, adjectives or nouns. (Swan 293-7)

  • He agreed to wait.
  • He suggested waiting. (not: He suggested to wait.)

-ing forms after verbs (Swan 296)

  • I enjoy traveling.
  • He's finished repairing the car.

"Unfortunately, there is no easy way to decide which structures are possible after a particular verb. It's best to check in a good dictionary." (Swan 296.1)

 

The catenative verbs and complements (Huddleston 14 §5)

A catenative verb  followed by a gerund-participle form is a catenative structure :

  • I hate to go. [to-infinitval]
  • I lhate going. [gerund-pariciple]

A further distinction is made between ordinary and raised subjects. (Huddleston14 §2.2)

  • We enjoyed sailing [ordinary subject]
  • We kept sailing [raised subject]

Verbs are broken into a framework of three clases based on simiple vs. complex constructions taking either a to-infinitval or a gerund-pariciple.  See this resources for various class lists and sub-divisions. (Huddleston 14 §5)

A prototypical object has the form of an NP.  In contrast, a verb followed by a gerund-participle is a catenative structure. The form following the verb is "licensed" by the verb. [In contrast to traditional description, a gerund-particple is not "used as an object".]

catenative verbs are verbs which can be followed within the same clause by another verb. This second subordinated verb can be in either the infinitive (both full and bare) or present participle / gerund forms. An example appears in the sentence He deserves to win the cup, where "deserve" is a catenative verb which can be followed directly by another verb, in this case a to-infinitive construction. (Wikipedia)

 

Grammatical Functions: Subject – (Subj) the agent of the action; Predicate/Predicator – (Pred) the action or change in state; Complement – Comp  –  an element required to complete the subject and verb; Adjunct – an element not required by the verb, a modifying word, phrase, clause; Supplement – a comment in the form of a word, phrase or clause that is loosely related to the central idea of the sentence.

Lexical Categories "Parts of Speech": N – noun / pronoun; NP – noun phrase; V – verb; VP – verb phrase; Adj – adjective; AdjP – adjective phrase; Adv – adverb; AdvP – adverb phrase; P – preposition; PP – prepositional phrase; Detdeterminers –  noun markers (e.g., articles, quantifiers, demonstratives, possessives); Subord – subordinator; Coord – coordinator; Interj – interjection; INF – infiniitve: GER – gerund; Nonfinite: an infinitive or gerund clause

 

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Commuting by Ferry

ferry boat
 

 

Read Context

I finish –work– at five o'clock last night and went home. I remember –close– the office door. I know that I didn't forget –lock– it. Unfortunately, I missed –catch– the ferry and had to wait thirty minutes. I stopped –rush– after I missed the ferry.

The ferry was also late because it stopped –let– a large cargo ship pass. Sometimes, ferry service can't help –be– late. Nevertheless, commuters expect –leave– on time. 

I especially dislike –get– home late at night. Once, I recall –be– an hour late because of high winds on the bay. Most people don't mind -be- delayed a little because the ferry has WiFi. 

I recommend –take– the ferry because its a relaxing trip over the water. You will appreciate –commute– without traffic. However, I suggest –allow– extra time in case of a delay.

commute (v.) – to travel regularly to and from a place such as work or school

ferry – a boating service that takes commuters (workers) across the bay

 

 

 

 

Complete the sentence with a gerund or an infinitive verb form.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your responses to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-14" button.

 

1.

2.
  I have a mental picture of the action.

3.
 

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.
delayed a little because the ferry has WiFi.

12.

13.

14.

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Delayed

replace car battery
 

 

Read for Errors

Mel and Karen were late arriving to the game.  They stopped getting some gas, but then they couldn't get their car started again.  They tried  jump-starting the car, but it wouldn't start.  They sat for awhile.  

They discussed to take a bus and leaving the car there. Neither of them could imagine to miss seeing the game. It was so important to both of them.

The attendant at the gas station suggested replacing the battery. They did and were on there way. They regretted not replaced the car battery earlier. They arrived at the ball park in time but not on time for the game.

jump-start (v.) give an external charge to the battery of the car

can't stand (v.) – be upset and unable to accept, tolerate, bear

on their way (expression) – continuing to their destination

 

 

 

Correct or Incorrect?

  1. Select a response correct or incorrect.
  2. Compare your responses to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 15-20" button.

 

15.
Mel and Karen were late arriving to the ball park.  They stopped getting some gas, and then they couldn't get their car started again.

     

16.
They tried jump-starting the car, but it wouldn't start.  They sat for awhile.

     

17.
They discussed to take a bus and leaving the car there.

     

18.
Neither of them could imagine to miss seeing the game. It was so important to both of them.

     

19.
The attendant at the gas station suggested replacing the battery. They did and were on there way. 

     

20.
They regretted not replaced the car battery earlier. They arrived at the ball park in time but not on time for the game.

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

The Action in the Stands

A shouting fanA San Francisco Giants Fan
 

 

Read for Errors

Jason like going to a game to watch the action on the field, but he also enjoys watch the action in the stands. It amuses him that some people will make complete fools of themselves at games.

A guy who wouldn't be caught dead wear makeup, will show up at a game with his face painted orange and black. Jason remembers to see one guy with his entire body painted in the colors of the team. And how could he forget try to see over the head of a guy wearing a 2-foot high orange wig.

Some fans can't help they scream at the top of their lungs. Really loud fans prevent anyone from hear anything at the game. When a point is scored, some fans start to dance around and jumping up and down on their seats. Jason really hates sit next to someone who is going ape, but it is pretty fun to watch from a distance.

The guys selling nuts are amazing.  They practice to toss packages of peanuts long distances with great accuracy. You can hear them come and shouting, "PEAnuts! peaNUTS! Get your PEAnuts!"

accuracy (n.) – precision, exactness

going ape (expression) – acting like a monkey or a baboon

lungs (n.) – the part (organ) of the body that takes in and lets out the air you breathe

pretty (adv.) – (informal) very, rather 

 

the stands (n.) – the area where fans sit and watch

the action (expression) – exciting or amusing activity  Lets see some action!  Lights, action, camera. (a moviemakers cue to begin filming)

wig (n.) – artificial hair

wouldn't be caught dead  (expression) – would avoid

 

 

 

 

Edit for Errors

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your responses to the answers by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 21-30" button at the bottom.

 

21.
Jason likes go to a game to watch the action on the field, but he also enjoys watch the action in the stands. It amuses him that some people will make complete fools of themselves at games.


22.
A guy who wouldn't be caught dead wear makeup, will show up at a game with his face painted orange and black.


23.
Jason remembers to see one guy with his entire body painted in the colors of the team.  


24.
And how could he forget try to see over the head of a guy wearing a 2-foot high orange wig.


25.
Some fans can't help they scream at the top of their lungs.


26.
Really loud fans prevent anyone from hear anything at the game.


27.
When a point is scored, some fans start to dance around and jumping up and down on their seats.


28.
Jason really hates sit next to someone who is going ape, but it is pretty fun to watch from a distance.


29.
The guys selling nuts are amazing. They practice to toss packages of peanuts long distances with great accuracy. 


30.
You can hear them come and shouting, "PEAnuts! peaNUTS! Get your PEAnuts!"