Indeed / Even

Emphasize unexpected or extraordinary details

Gingerbread House Maker

 

Words for Emphasis

EMPHASIS WORD

Indeed, in fact, even, even though even if emphasize extraordinary or unusual circumstances.  Their placement and punctuation vary.

INDEED — DEGREE ADVERB

He is indeed a fine pastry chef.

He does indeed do outstanding work.

He is a very fine chef indeed!

He is very talented indeed. (very + adj)

IN FACT— PREP. PHRASE WITH A DETAIL AS PROOF

He is a very fine pastry chef, in fact,  award winning.

He is a very fine pastry chef; in fact,  he is award winning.

EVEN — FOCUS ADVERB

Even he can make gingerbread houses. 

He can even make gingerbread houses. 

 

He can make even gingerbread houses. 

EVEN THOUGH — FOCUS ADVERB + PREPOSITION

He dislikes eating sweets even though he is a pastry chef.

He is an award winning pastry chef even though some critics disagree.

EVEN IF —  FOCUS ADVERB + PREPOSITION

He does excellent work even if he is tired.

He will attend to details of the house even if the house looks perfect to everyone else.

PARAPHRASE

A similar meaning may be expressed with other adverbs or prepositional phrases.

REALLY / MORE SO / EXCEPTIONAL

He is an exceptionally fine pastry chef.

He really does outstanding work.

He is a very fine pastry chef—really!

He is truly very talented.

IN TRUTH

He is a fine pastry chef, truly award winning.

He is a fine pastry chef. In truth, he is award winning.

UNEXPECTED / EXCEPTIONAL ADDITION

Surprisingly, he can make gingerbread houses.

He unexpectedly can make gingerbread houses.

He  can unexpectedly make gingerbread houses.

He  can make also gingerbread houses. (an exceptional addition)

EXCEPTIONAL CONSIDERING… (CONCESSION)

He dislikes eating sweets which is exceptional considering he is a pastry chef.

He is an award winning pastry chef which is not diminished by the fact that some critics disagree.

WHETHER OR NOT THERE IS AN EXCEPTIONAL OCCURRENCE

He does excellent work whether or not he is tired.

He will attend to details of the house whether or not the house looks perfect to everyone else.

 

even if — a situation that has no conditions.

even though — a situation that is unexpected or contrary to the situation in the main clause; “which is exceptional considering that…” or "a situation that is not diminished by…"  (diminish — make less)

Also see Focusing Adverbs, Degree Adverbs, Words for Introducing Examples.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indeed / Even

Focusing on an exceptional quality or characteristic

 

 

 

Indeed vs. Even

INDEED

Indeed often emphasizes very with an adjective or adverb [very–adj–indeed] [very–adv–indeed].  Indeed also is used after be or an auxiliary verb to suggest confirmation or emphatic agreement.

The chef made a gingerbread house. It was very fancy indeed.  (very…indeed)

People were indeed interested in how he made it.    (emphasis on verb)

People were delighted, indeed amazed, to see his work.  (a restatement)

He's amazing.  He is indeed. "very much so"  (confirmation)

 

EVEN

Even is a focusing adverb that points to another part of the sentence, usually the part after the verb. Even expresses surprise at an unexpected or exceptional occurrence. It is commonly placed in mid-position (after the auxiliary and before the verb) but may also be placed elsewhere.

The chef made a gingerbread house. It was even fancier than the one before(more than I expected)

People were even interested in how he made itfocusing adverb

People were delighted, even amazed when they saw it.  (unexpectedly

 

 

indeed (adv.) — degree modifier (Huddleston 584)
even (adv.) — additive focusing modifier (Huddleston 594, 6 §7.3.2)
Related page: Adv for Focus – even

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Fact / Even

Focusing on a exceptional fact or detail

 

 

 

In Fact vs. Even

IN FACT

In fact introduces a detail, often to support an argument or a statement (assertion).  It is called a stance adverbial because it expresses the speakers view of reality about the situation.  See Adv for Opinion.

He's a master at building gingerbread houses. In fact, he's a teacher at the Culinary Academy.

He made it fairly quickly.  In fact, he did most of it in just one day.

He loves to work by himself. In fact, he has been doing his own marketing.

He added a chimney!  He did, indeed.  

EVEN

Even places emphasis on a particular part of the sentence expressing an exceptional, surprising, or unexpected aspect. (See below.)

He's a master at building gingerbread houses. He even teaches his art at the Culinary Academy(a surprising, exceptional activity)

He makes one in one day.  Even he works long hours to get one done.  (It may be surprising that a master requires as much time as everyone else.)

He loves to work by himself.  He has even been doing his own marketing (an exceptional occurrence.)

He added several details – even a chimney.  (an unexpected addition) 

 

Related page: For Example– In fact

 

 

 

Even – Emphasis on Sentence Parts

NOUN PHRASE  SUBJ / OBJ

Some focusing adverbs occur initially, drawing focus to the subject.  Others can appear after the verb drawing attention to the object or a prepositional phrase. (In place of also, too or as well can be used in final position.

EMPHASIS ON SUBJECT

Even Jane can make a cake.  (Other people can.  Surprisingly, Jane can too.)

EMPHASIS ON OBJECT

Jane can make even a wedding cake.  (a surprising project) [obj. of verb]

Jane is a manager and a pastry chef. She is even a mother of four children. (an unexpected job) ["be" complement]

EMPHASIS ON PREP PHRASE

Jane can make a wedding cake even in a toaster oven.  (an unexpected equipment) [prep. phrase]

Jane can make a wedding cake in even a small toaster oven.  (an unexpected size) [obj of prep.]

VERB PHRASE

Most focusing verbs can occur mid-position (1) after the main verb,  (2) after the auxiliary but before the main verb, (3) after a "be" main verb.

EMPHASIS ON MAIN VERB

Jane can even decorate a cake. (an unexpected ability)

EMPHASIS ON AUXILIARY VERB

Jane even may decorate a cake. (an unexpected possibility)

 
 
 

Related page: Adv for Focus – even

 

 

 

 

 

 

Even though / Even if

Emphasizing an exceptional situation

 

 

Even though vs. Even if

EVEN THOUGH

Even though (like though) expresses an exceptional existing situation that is contrary to what one would expect.  Even adds emphasis to the though-clause.

WHICH IS EXCEPTIONAL WITH THE EXISTING SITUATION…

He doesn't eat sweets even though he is a pastry chef.

He continues to work even though he is ninety.

 

WHICH IS NOT DIMINISHED BY THE EXISTING SITUATION…

He is an amazing chef even though some critics disagree.

He does fine detail work on each house even though he has arthritis. 
(a condition affecting the flexibility of finger joints ) 

EVEN IF

Even if (like if) expresses an exceptional, extraordinary, or unexpected condition that does not affect the truth of the main clause.  Even adds emphasis to the if-clause.  The effect of an even if clause is that there is no condition.

WHETHER OR NOT THE EXCEPTIONAL SITUATION OCCURS…

He won't eat sweets even if you ask him to. 
(There is no condition.  He won't eat sweets !)

He will continue to work even if he turns ninety.   (turns – becomes)

WHETHER OR NOT THIS NEGATIVE SITUATION OCCURS …

He is an amazing chef even if some critics might disagree.

He does fine detail work on each house even if he gets hand tremors.  (tremors – shakes) 

 

 

Adjuncts of concession (Huddleston 734, 8 §13.1)

Related pages: Though, Even if / Whether or Not

 

 

 

 

 

 

Punctuation

Commas and Sentence Position

 

 

 

Commas

INITIAL-POSITION ADVERB

comma symbolA comma marks a change from standard word order. A comma is placed after Indeed or in fact when the adverb modifies the following clause.

MODIFIES WHOLE CLAUSE

We paid $5 per gallon.  Indeed, we paid too much!  [clause emphasis]

We paid $5 per gallon. In fact, we paid too much. [clause emphasis]

MODIFIES  AN ASIDE COMMENT

Five dollars, even four, is too much to pay for a gallon of gas.

Five dollars, in fact four dollars, is too much to pay for a gallon of gas.

We paid a lot, even more than usual.

 
 
MID-POSITION ADVERB

use no commaNo comma is used for standard word order.

MODIFIES VERB PHRASE

We did indeed pay too much. 

We did in fact pay too much.

*We did even pay too much. 

We even paid too much.

MODIFIES "BE" COMPLEMENT

Gas is indeed more expensive than before.

Gas is in fact more expensive than before.

Gas is even more expensive than before.

MODIFIES SUBJECT OR OBJECT

He paid way too much. Even we paid too much.

We paid five dollars per gallon!  Even four dollars is unreasonable.  [subject]

He wouldn't stop at a gas station that sells gas for $5 dollars. Even I wouldn't.    [subject]

I wouldn't buy even one gallon of gas.  [object]

 

An aside comment is a thought that strays (goes away) from the central idea of the main clause. It may be omitted without much change in meaning. See Comments.

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect, ungrammatical usage.

Related page: Adv for Focus (also, only, even, just, really, neither, etc.)

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*He even works though he is retired. 

 

~We indeed saw a new side of the problem.

~We are happy indeed that he agreed.

SOLUTION

He works even though he is retired. (emphasis - unexpected outcome)

He is still working (even) though he is retired. (emphasis - ongoing, extended activity)

He has worked all his life, even in retirement years. (emphasis - exceptional occurrence) 

We did indeed see a new side of the problem. (Indeed is used after an auxiliary to suggest emphatic agreement.)

 

We are very happy indeed that he agreed. (Indeed is  commonly used with very + adjective + indeed...)

We are indeed happy that he agreed. (with an aux.)

 

*not used; ~uncommonly used; awkward

Related page: Adv for Focus (also, only, even, just, really, neither, etc.)

Solution - lightbulb  Pop-Q  "Even"

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Traditional Grammar and Linguistic Description

Advanced

 

 

 

TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION
EVEN EVEN

Adverb.  emphasis:  unexpected, surprising  (LDOCE even)

"Even" is not addressed in Azar.

 

Focusing adverb. "concession"  (Huddleston 734, 8 §13.1)  (Swan 189, 24.6)

Circumstance Adverbial. Additive/Restrictive (Biber 798)

Focusing subjuncts. (Quirk 8.116)

 

INDEED INDEED

Sentence adverb. 1. used to emphasize a statement or answer; 2. used to introduce an additional statement that emphasizes or supports what you have just said

Adverb 3. used with 'very' and an adjective or adverb to emphasize a statement or description; 4. used to show that you are surprised or annoyed by something that someone has just told you  (LDOCE indeed)

very…indeed "Indeed is often used to emphasise very with an adjective or adverb."

"Indeed can also be used after be or an auxiliary verb to suggest confirmation or emphatic agreement." (Swan 273)

"Indeed" does not appear in Azar.

 

Degree Adverb. (quite, indeed, rather)  (Huddleston et al. 6 §7.2.31)  (Swan 273)

Stance Adverb. (Biber 562)

Content Disjunct. Degree of Truth: conviction (Quirk 8.127)
Adverb. Emphasizer  (Quirk 7.57)

 

EVEN THOUGH EVEN THOUGH

Adverb Clause of Contrast with even though express unexpected result. (Azar et al.  17-4) Similarly, contrast connectives though and although introduce  an adverb clause

 

Adjuncts of concession. (though, although, even though, despite, nevertheless, still, yet, whereas, while, etc.)    (Huddleston 8 §13.3)

Adverb + Conjunction.   (Swan 24.6, 189.4, 49.1)

Circumstance Adverbial. Clause of Concession (though, although, even though, while) (Biber 824, 842)

Adverbial Clause.Concession (though, nevertheless, still) (Quirk 15.39-40)

 

EVEN IF EVEN IF

Adverb Clause of Condition with (even if, whether or not) express the idea that neither this nor that matters; the result will be the same.   (Azar   7-8.b) 

Conditional adjunct. (even if) (Huddleston et al. 8 14.1.3)

Adverb + Conjunction. (even if, even though; if) (Swan 189.4, 256)

Correlative Subordinator (Biber 2.4.8.2)

Circumstance Adverbial.Clause of Condition (if, although, as) (Biber 10.2.8.4)

Adverbial Clause. Condition  (Quirk 15.30)
Alternative conditional-concessive clauses (Quirk 15.39,15.41-2)

 

 

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Chef Giorgio

Chef Giorgio
 

 

Determine which word can be used for emphasis.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your responses to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.

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Practice 2

Healthy Food Choices

a hamburger eater
 

Use — Even, Even though, or Even if

  1. Select the response that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the option.

 

11.

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15.

be pressed for time – be hurried

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Peppers

Chili peppers
 

 

Add punctuation if needed.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

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