And So / And Too

Reduce a repeated verb in a joined clause

new toy
 

 

And So

FULL CLAUSE

And coordinates (joins) two independent clauses.  Note that ach clause has its own subject and verb, and that each clause can stand alone as a sentence.

I am five today, and my cousin is five today. 

My brother has a new toy, and I have a new toy.  (present)

My brother is going to get a new toy, and I am going to get a new toy.  (BE-future)

My brother got a new toy, and I got a new toy.  (past)

My brother should say "thank you", and I should say "thank you".  (modal verb)

SHORTENED CLAUSE – AND SO 

One way to shorten a clause after and is to add so followed by the auxiliary verb (be, do or a modal). Note that the subject is placed after the auxiliary verb.

I am five today, and so is my cousin.    (be) 

My brother has a new toy, and so do I.   (Am Eng) / have I.  (Br Eng)

My bother is going to get a new toy, and so am I.   (be)

My bother got a new toy, and so did I(do)

My bother should say "thank you", and so should I.   

 

*Use be for stating age, not have. See Static Verbs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paired Conjunction

And Too

toy xylophone
 

 

And Too

FULL CLAUSE

And coordinates (joins) two independent clauses.  Note that ach clause has its own subject and verb, and that each clause can stand alone as a sentence.

My brother has a new toy, and I have a new toy.  (present)

My brother is going to get a new toy, and I am going to get a new toy.  (BE-future)

My brother got a new toy, and I got a new toy.  (past)

My brother should say "thank you", and I should say "thank you".  (modal verb)

SHORTENED CLAUSE 

Another way to shorten the clause after and is to change the main verb of the second clause ito the auxiliary verb and add too. (The position of the subject does not change.)

My brother has a new toy, and I do too.   (Am Eng)

My brother has a new toy, and I have too.  (Br Eng)

My bother is going to get a new toy, and I am too.

My bother got a new toy, and I did too.  

My bother should say "thank you", and I should too. 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paired Conjunctions

But… not

toy envy
 

 

But Not

CLAUSE

But coordinates (contrasts) two independent clauses. Each clause has its own subject and verb; each clause can stand alone as a sentence.

My brother has a new toy, but I don't have a new toy.  (present)

 

My brother is going to get a new toy, but I am not going to get a new toy.  (BE-future)

My brother got new toy, but I didn't get a new toy.  (past)

My brother should say "thank you", but I shouldn't say "thank you".  (modal verb)

SHORTENED CLAUSE 

After but, the main verb of the second clause is shortened to the auxiliary verb. A contraction (e.g., don't, can't) is used informally.

My brother has a new toy, but I don't.  (Am Eng)

My brother has a new toy, but I haven't.  (Br Eng)

My brother is going to get a new toy, but I am not.

My brother got new toy,  but I didn't. 

My bother should say "thank you", but I shouldn't. / don't have to. 
(shouldn't - not advised / don't have to - not required)  

 

   Also see Neither and either 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tag Questions

Shortened Questions and Answers

 

 

Add-on Short Questions

A tag question (so called because it is added or tagged onto the end of a statement) does one of the following:

 

Tag Question Verb Forms   

1ST PERSON Singular/ Plural 2ND PERSON Singular/ Plural 3RD PERSON Singular/ Plural
BE    

I am going too, aren't I? (irregular) 
We are going too, aren't we?
 

You are going too, aren't you?
You (all) are going too, aren't you?

She / he is going too, isn't she/he?
They are going too, aren't they?

DO  (custom, habit)    

I go too, don't I?
We go too, don't we?
 

You go too, don't you?
You (all) go too, don't you?

She / he goes too, doesn't he / she?
They go too, don't they? 

DID    

I went too, didn't I?
We went too, didn't we?
 

You went too, didn't you?
You (all) went, didn't you?

She / he went too, didn't he / she?
They went too, didn't they? 

HAVE    

I have gone there too, haven't I?
We have gone there too, haven't we?
 

You have gone there too, haven't you?
You (all) have gone there too, haven't you?

She / he has gone there too, hasn't he / she?
They have gone there too, haven't they? 

MODAL    

I will go there too, won't I?
We will go there too, won't we?
 

You will go there too, won't you?
You (all) will go there too, won't you?

She / he will go there too, won't he / she?
They will go there too, won't they? 

NEGATIVE    

I am not going either, am I? (irregular) 
We are not going either, are we?
 

You are not going either, are you?
You (all) are not going either, are you?

She / he is not going either, is she/he?
They are not going either, are they?

 

 

 

Tag Question Responses

TAG QUESTION – NEGATIVE

A response to a statement with a tag question at the end ignores the negative tag addition.  The expected response is 'Yes, I have.' The unexpected response is 'No, I haven't.' 

NEG. QUESTION RESPONSE

I'm going too, aren't I? 

Yes, you are.      |  No, you aren't.

 

*Yes, you aren't.  | *No, you are.   incorrect

TAG QUESTION – POSITIVE

A response to a statement with a tag question at the end ignores the positive tag addition. The expected response is 'No, I haven't.'   The unexpected response is 'Yes, I have.'

NEG. QUESTION RESPONSE

I'm not going too, am I?  I am  not going?

Yes, you are.      |  No, you aren't.

 

*Yes, you aren't.  | *No, you are.   incorrect

 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.
Related page: Yes-No Short Responses 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

toy phone
 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR SOLUTION

*My brother has a new phone, and so do I too.     

My brother has a new phone, and I do too /or and so do I

*My brother has a new phone, and I too

 

*My brother has a new phone, and I also

My brother has a new phone, and I also have a new one.
(Use also with the full clause.)
 

*My brother has gotten a new phone, and I have too (present perfect tense)

My bother got a new phone, and I did too. / and so did I.

I have driven to Disneyland, and he has too.  / and so has he
Use simple past tense when mentioning source. Reporting source   The present perfect tense is used to emphasize time duration / experience.
 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.
Solution - lightbulb "And too"

and so (Huddleston 17 7.7.3)

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Owner Is Like Dog

Dog Owner and Dog
 

 

Complete the sentence with a shortened clause.

  1. Select the auxiliary verb that agrees with the first clause.
  2. Then check your answer.

 

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Practice 2

Getting Around Downtown

motorcycle sidewalk
 

 

Complete the sentence with a shortened clause.

  1. Select the word from each menu that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button. 

 

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squeeze (v.) - to fit or move through a small or narrow space 

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Cars banned