If there are no bees, flowers will not be pollinated. (future - cause effect prediction)
If I am going to help, you need to give me your full attention. (intent)
If I am to help, you need to give me your full attention.
If you will step this way please. (request)
If you will only try a little harder, you will succeed. (indirect request)
If you won't work harder, then you will continue to fail.
If you are unwilling to work harder, then you will continue to fail.
If I go shopping, I take a cloth bag.
If we went shopping, the store gave us a bag.
Whenever, we go shopping, we walk.
Jack will cut the grass if he has time.
(He doesn't know if he has time yet - maybe.)
Jack would cut the grass if he had time.
(He doesn't have time.)
Jack would cut the grass if he would / could / might / had time. (modal use)
If the night watchmen had had binoculars, they would have been able to spot the iceberg earlier.
The captain could have steered directly into the iceberg causing less damage.
The Titanic should have had more lifeboats.
If you had fed the dog, she wouldn't be hungry now. (regret)
If I had known (that) your dog was / is aggressive, I wouldn't have offered to feed it. (noun clause – existing truth – The dog was agressive then and still is now.)
If I had known (that) your dog was ill, I would have offered to help it. (noun clause – earlier truth – The dog was ill at that time.)
We wish to go with you. (direct request / demand)
I wish I were home in my country. (a private thought; longing)
I wish I could go with you. (an excuse or an expression of regret)
I wish you would let
me pay for
dinner. (pretend regret, or upset)
I wish you'd turn that TV
off! (low expectation request; anger)
My father wished he had gone to college. (I regret he didn't.)
My father wished that I would go to graduate school. (I did.)
I wish father had understood my appreciation.(I regret he didn't.)
I wish my son understood his grandfather's efforts. (He doesn't.)
I wish my son would understand the importance of hard work. (He might one day.)
If you cook your turkey like this, you will have a tender turkey. (if this condition is met)
Only if you cook your turkey like this, will you have a delicious dinner. (under this condition - emphasizes this specific condition) .
Unless you cook your turkey like this, you will have a tough turkey. (if this condition is not met)
Cook your turkey like this. Otherwise, you will have a tough turkey. (if using other methods)
I don't know if my cell phone will work here.
I don't know whether my cell phone will work here.
I don't know whether my cell phone will work if I use it here.
If I were/was you, I wouldn't get involved.
Were I you, I wouldn't get involved.
Had I known, I would have said something.
Should you see him again, call me immediately.
Keep some extra batteries and bottled water In case there is an earthquake.
Get away from falling objects if there is an earthquake.
Would you like some coffee?
Would you rather have tea or coffee?
On Sundays, we would visit our relatives
have stopped smoking, but it was too difficult.
I would rather have found an easy way out, but I didn't.
I will win this singing contest!
I thought that I would win that contest.
The judges won't vote for me. They refuse.
The judges wouldn't vote for me. They refused.