Comparisons

Express similarity and difference

setting comparisons
 

Words for similarity and difference

SIMILARITY

Use these comparative words to show similarity.

The apples are the same. (pronoun)

These apples are alike. (adj)

The apples are similar. (adj)

The apples ripen similarly(adv)

This apple is like that apple. (prep phrase)

DIFFERENCE

Use these comparative words to show difference.

The apple and the orange are different. (adj)

The apple and the orange are unalike / not alike. (adj)

The apple and the orange are dissimilar. (adj)

The apple and the orange grow differently. (adv)

The apple is unlike the orange. (prep)
 

 

Related page: Parallel Phrasing   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison

Expressions

 

 

 

Expressions for Similarity and Differences

SIMILARITY

Use the expressions below to show similarity: as…as, the same…as, like, etc.

This apple is as red as that apple.  (adv - adv)

This apple has the same flavor as that apple.   (noun - adv)

This apple and the other apples are the same.*

This apple looks like that apple. (verb phrase)

This apple is similar to that apple.  (adj - prep)

This apple is like that apple.  (prep)

This apple is just the same as that apple.  (adv - pronoun - adv)

Both this apple and that one are sweet. (focusing adverb - conjunction)

Neither this apple nor that one is sweet. (focusing adverb - conjunction)
 

DIFFERENCE

Use the expressions below to show dissimilarity: not as…as, different…from, unlike, etc.

The apple is different from/ than the orange.  (adj - conj)

This apple is not as sweet as this orange. (adv - adv)

The apple is more beautiful than the orange.  (adv - conj)

The apple is much more beautiful than the orange. (adv -adv - conj)

The apple grows on a tree unlike the tomato.  (prep)

The apple is more like a pear than the orange.  (prep - adv)

The skin of the apple contrasts to the skin of the orange. (verb - prep)

The orange in contrast to the lemon is sweet. (prep - prep)

The orange is sweet in contrast to the lemon which is bitter.

 

Also see: Both - and (neither nor)  More than  and the same as, Determiners 
 *Same almost always occurs as the same in a comparison.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison / Contrast

Linking Adverbs "Transition Words"

 

 

 

Linking adverbs for similarity and difference  (linking adverbs)

SIMILARITY

A transition word ( a linking adverb) transitions the reader from the thought in one sentence to a similar thought in the next.  The adverbial is an adverb (-ly, -wise) or a prepositional phrase.

This apple is tart.  Similarly, this one is sour. (adv)

This apple is tart.  In the same way, this one is sour.  (prep phrase)

That orange is delicious.  Likewise, this apple is very flavorful. (adv)

That orange is delicious.  Equally, this apple is very flavorful. (adv)

This orange is flavorful.  In a similar manner, this apple is very tasty. (prep phrase)

DIFFERENCE

These transition words, called linking adverbials, are used to relate the information in two clauses.  The adverb relates to the entire clause rather than the verb within the clause.

The apple is red.  In contrast, the orange is orange. (prep phrase)

Some people think the apple is orange.  On the contrary, the apple is red. on the contrary = not true!  (prep phrase)

While / Whereas the orange is high in fiber, the apple is not. (prep phrase)

 

The orange is high in fiber. However, the apple is not. (linking adverb)

On the one hand the lemon is high in fiber, on the other hand it is too bitter to eat. "both sides of the coin" 

 

Also see: Contrasts - but / but still, Adv for Linking

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comparative Nouns

-er and more

 

 

 

Comparing qualities of nouns

-ER

Use the suffix -er with one syllable words to make a comparative word form  with than.

This apple is better than that one (good - better)

This apple is redder than the other one (red)
 

MORE

Use the more with multiple-syllable words to make a comparative clause with than.

This apple is more beautiful than that one

This apple is more flavorful than the other one

 

See More / -er…than,   Most/-est and Much / More 

Comparative forms:   much–more–most / many–more–most

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

FOCUS

This one is more bigger than that one.

It look likes a good idea.

The movie was similarly to the "Rocky".

These cherries are not as sweeter as those.

We had to drive further than we wanted to.

That's more better.  (mo' better  "great" – slang )
 

SOLUTION

This one is bigger than that one.
(Use one comparative form. In this case, just use the -er suffix for a one syllable word.)

It looks like a good idea.  (Place the -s after the verb as the 3rd person singular marker.)

The movie was similar to "Rocky".  (Use the adjective form of "similar" in this expression  "similar to".)

These cherries are not as sweet as those. (Use one comparative form. In this case, jus t use as…as .)

We had to walk farther than we wanted to.  (adj)

We drove a bit futher. (n.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Farther / Further

(Advanced)

 

 

Brief Notes on Farther vs. Further

FARTHER

Many speakers still use farther and further interchangeably with a meaning of "distance". Other speakers prefer farther for physical distance (spatial, temporal, metaphorical distance) and further for "figurative" distance.

DISTANCE

The station is farther down the road. (adj.)

ADDITIONAL / EXTRA

*He will pursue farther education.  (adj.)

FURTHER

Further with farther with a meaning of "distance". Also, further is used with a meaning of "more", "additional" or "extra". ¹Note as adverbs, farther and further are less well diferentiated when used with the meaning of "distance".

DISTANCE

The station is further down the road. (adj.)

ADDITIOANL / EXTRA

He will pursue further education.   (adj. – additional)

 

See page Farther / Further.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Comparing and Contrasting

Fisherman's Wharf
 

 

Complete the comparative expression.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

1.

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6.

7.

8.

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10.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Expressions of Comparison

 

 

 

Select the word or the expression that best completes the sentence.

  1. Decide whether to use the noun or the adjective word form.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.
11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

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18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Beaches

cars on Florida beach
 

 

Read for Errors

Florida beaches are very different to California beaches. Beaches in the California have biggers waves due to the stronger tidal action of the Pacific Ocean.  Also, the beach drops away into deep water more quicker. That is, after a short walk, a swimmer has to start swimming to stay above the water. Once in the water, a swimmer sees a lot of kelp (sea weed) which can make the sand on California beaches look dirty than the sand on Florida beaches.

Contrasting, in Florida the water is more warmer and calmer because the Atlantic ocean produces less wave action. Contrary to California, the Florida beaches slope gently into the water.

A swimmer can walk farther before having to swim. The water also has life in it – sharks. While a swimmer can encounter sharks in shallow water in both Florida and California, it happens oftener in Florida. 

Similar like California beaches, Florida beaches have beautiful white sand, which is perfect for sunbathing and sand castles. However, watch out for cars when lying on Florida beaches!  Where as cars are not permitted on California beaches, they are permitted on several Florida Beaches. On the one hand, the sunrise is beautiful on a Florida beach, the sunset is beautiful on a California beach.

 

 

 

Edit for errors.

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.
19.
Florida beaches are very different to California beaches.


20.
Beaches in the California have biggers waves due to the stronger tidal action of the Pacific Ocean.


21.
Also, the beach drops away into deep water more quicker.


22.
That is, after a short walk, a swimmer has to start swimming to stay above the water.


23.
Once in the water, a swimmer sees a lot of kelp (sea weed) which can make the sand on California beaches look dirty than the sand on Florida beaches.


24.
Contrasting, in Florida the water is more warmer and calmer because the Atlantic ocean produces less wave action.


25.
Contrary to California, the Florida beaches slope gently into the water.


26.
A swimmer can walk farther before having to swim.


27.
While a swimmer can encounter sharks in shallow water in both Florida and California, it happens oftener in Florida. 


28.
Similar like California beaches, Florida beaches have beautiful white sand, which is perfect for sunbathing and sand castles.


29.
Where as cars are not permitted on California beaches, they are permitted on several Florida Beaches.


30.
On the one hand, the sunrise is beautiful on a Florida beach, the sunset is beautiful on a California beach.