Modifying (Adjective) Clause Summary



Computer Skills

Quiz 1: beginning – intermediate

Quiz 2: intermediate – advanced 

Relative Clauses

smart car on street 

The car that is very small  is economical to drive.

The car that I want to buy  is economical to drive.


Personal Relative Clause

Woman on Phone 

The woman who called you is here.

The woman  (whom) you called is here.

Possessive Clauses

greek woman 

The woman  who is Greek is on the phone.

The woman  whose name is Greek is on the phone.


The car    the lines of which are sleek   is excellent. (formal)

The car    whose lines are sleek is excellent. (less formal)

The car    with the sleek lines is excellent.


flower child 

San Francisco,  where the "flower children" began,  is a colorful city.

The 1960s, when the "flower children" thrived, was a colorful decade.


The Walt Disney Company has several parks, all of which are run by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts.

California has a lot of visitors, most of whom come to see Disneyland.

Identifying / Restrictive Clauses

Bottled Water 

The water that I drank last night contained sodium.

The Evian water, which I drank last night, contained sodium.


Candy that contains chocolate is dangerous to dogs. 

Candy, which is a sweet, is irresistible to children. 

pressing delete key 

He deleted the picture that upset me. (The picture upset me.)

He deleted the picture, which upset me. (The action upset me.)

Reduced Modifying Clauses

talk show 

 The seat [that was] next to me was empty.

The woman [who is] seated behind me is eating popcorn. 

A talk show [which is] trying to improve its rating may plan a fight. 


 The subcommittee [which meets] next week will discuss a new bill.

 The subcommittee meeting next week will discuss a new bill.

Golden Gate Bridge

The Golden Gate Bridge, [which was] designed by Charles Ellis, ...

The Golden Gate Bridge, designed by Charles Ellis, ...


The federal agency, which was locating the prison on Alcatraz,
preferred the isolated location of the island.

The federal agency, which was located in San Francisco,
preferred the isolated location of the island.

Misrelated Clauses or "Dangling Participles"

heart in the trash

*Being a guy, it is hard for him to understand her point of view.

Being a guy, he has a hard time understanding her point of view.

Review / Practice

Kiddie TV 

 Commercials that you see on TV  (is / are) ____ aimed at children.


runners on cell phones 

The Bay to Breakers race, (its, whose, that)  ____ name comes from its route, is fun for all.

Related Pages


Whatever you say is confidential.

You can take whomever you want.

Whatever way will be fine.



A mismatch on a date

Who did you give your number to?
To whom did you give your number?  very formal

Can you tell me what kind of person you are interested in?
Can you tell me in what kind of person you are interested?

The word that you looked up is not in my dictionary.
*The word up which you looked is not in my dictionary.