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Of Which / With

Adding descriptive information for possessive nouns

Lincoln
 

 

Possessive Relative Pronouns

PERSONAL / ANIMATE

Whose replaces a possessive personal noun in a modifying clause (relative clause).

FORMAL

move overwho modifies woman
The designer whose car
had sleek lines was Italian.

 

OTHER MODIFIERS

The designer,  an Italian, was pleased with his car.  (appositive)

The designer with the sleek car was Italian.  (prep. phrase)

INANIMATE

The X of which replaces a possessive inanimate noun in a modifying clause (relative clause).

FORMAL

move overwho modifies woman
The car    the lines of which are sleek   is beautiful.

The car    whose lines are sleek  is beautiful. (slightly less formal)

OTHER MODIFIERS

The car,   the Model S, is beautiful. ( appositive)

The car    with the sleek lines is beautiful. (prep. phrase)

 

animate (adj.) – in the context of grammar, this refers to people
designer (n.) – person who draws the plans and design (how something looks) for something
inanimate (adj.) – not alive, things
sleek (adj.) – has a smooth attractive shape; sleek lines, sleek hair

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forming the X of which

Replacing the Subject or Object Possessive Noun

 

 

 

The X of Which —  Subject or Object of the Modifying Clause

SUBJECT OF CLAUSE

Of which replaces the subject —possessive noun or pronoun— in the modifying clause, which is placed after the inanimate noun that it modifies.

The car was beautiful. The lines of the car are sleek.

  SUBJECT of MOD CLS  

The car

the lines of the car are sleek
move forward   move forward

was beautiful.

 

the lines  of which

 

The car

the lines  of which are sleek

was beautiful.

0BJECT OF CLAUSE

Of which replaces replaces the object —possessive noun or pronoun— in the modifying clause, which is then placed after the inanimate noun it modifies.

The car was beautiful. You saw the lines of the car.

  OBJECT of MOD CLS  

The car

you saw the lines of the car
        move front   move front

was beautiful.

 

the lines  of which

 

The car

the lines  of which you saw

was beautiful.

 

Add commas if the clause adds extra information that is not essential to identifying who the person is. (a non-identifying, non-restrictive clause) See Some or All and That vs Which

For "relative words", see Huddleston 12 §3.2.1-2.

 

 

 

 

 

Of Which-Clause

Clause Position

 

 

 

Modifying the Subject of the Main Clause

MODIFIES SUBJECT OF MAIN CLAUSE

A possessive modifying clause can modify the subject noun of the main clause. It is placed directly after the noun it modifies.

SUBJECT SUBJECT of MOD CLS  

The car

subject

the price of which is high

is new.

The seats

the leather of which is soft

are new.

MODIFIES OBJECT OF MAIN CLAUSE

A possessive modifying clause can modify the object noun of the main clause. It is placed directly after the noun it modifies.

  OBJECT OBJECT of MOD CLS

Here is

the car  

subject

the price of which is high.

Here are

the seats

the leather of which is soft.

 

complement – a word, phrase or clause which is necessary in a sentence to complete its meaning
verb + complement – elements required to complete the meaning of the clause

¹Corinthian – from Corinth (an advertising term that was used for Chrysler luxury.) 

 

 

 

Who/Whom-Clause

Punctuation

car

 

 

 

An identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

IDENTIFYING CLAUSE

no comma usedA clause that identifies the noun before it (tells you which one) is not set off with commas.

The car the sides of which are blue is very pretty. 

The interior the color of which is beige  is compact.

NONIDENTIFYING CLAUSE

use a commaA clause that adds extra, nonidentifying information is set off with comma(s).  The object pronoun cannot be omitted.

My car, the sides of which are blue, is very pretty. 

The Pure Coupe,  the color of which is beige,  is compact.

 

beige (n.) – off-white color; pale brown
compact
(adj.) – small, but arranged so that everything fits neatly into the space available

An identifying clause adds information or narrows (limits) the noun to a specific one, group or lot.  The clause helps by telling us which one. No commas are used.  It is also called restrictive, essential , or necessary clause. See That vs. Which   Some or All.

A nonidentifying clause adds extra information about a noun already identified by other means, for example, by name, by shared knowledge or context. The clause, a comment, is set off with commas (before and, if necessary, after the clause). It is also called nonrestrictive, nonessential,  or unnecessary clause. See Commas – comments.

¹An object relative pronoun cannot be omitted from (left out of) a nonidentifying clause.

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

ERROR SOLUTION

The book which's title is  From from Within was written in the 1990s.

 

He drives a car that I can't remember the brand of.  (informal)

He drives a car the brand of which I can't remember.
He drives a car whose brand I can't remember.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

A Used Car

used car

 

 

Use Of Which Phrasing

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check 1-10" button at the bottom, or click the "check" button as you go.

 

1.
We bought a used car. The fender of it was dented.


2.
We wanted to buy a used car. The price of the car depended on the market. 

3.
I found my husband reading a magazine. The cover of it had a picture of a hybrid car.  


4.
The sun destroyed the car paint. The color of the paint was faded.  

was faded.

5.
I called a body shop for an appointment. The time of the appointment was early in the morning. 



body shop – a business that repairs the exterior of a car

6.
My car needs to go into the body shop.  The door of the car is bent. 


7.
I know of a good body shop.  I can't remember its name right now.


8.
I received a reasonable estimate. The amount of the estimate was the lowest of all.  



reasonable (adj.) – fair and sensible
estimate (n.) – an educated or professional guess of what the number (cost) will be.

9.
He repainted my car. The color of my car is burgundy.  

10.
The body shop is excellent. I recommend the work of this body shop 

The body shop 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Cars

Mechanic

 

 

 

Use With Phrasing

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check 11-20" button at the bottom, or click the "check" button as you go.

 

11.
Change to a with phrase: The fender of it was dented.


12.
Change to a with phrase:  The price of the car was reasonable. 

13.
Change to a with phrase:  The cover of it had a picture of a hybrid car.  


14.
Change to a with phrase:  The color of the car was faded.  (lightened its color) 


15.
Change to a with phrase: The time of the appointment was early in the morning. 



body shop – a business that repairs the exterior of a car

16.
Change to a with phrase:    The door of the car is bent. 


17.
Change to a with phrase:   I can't remember the name of it right now.



body shop – a business that repairs the exterior of a car

18.
Change to a with phrase:  The amount of the estimate was the lowest of all.  



reasonable (adj.) – fair and sensible
estimate (n.) – an educated or professional guess of what the number (cost) will be

19.
Rephrase:  The color of my car is red.  

20.
Rephrase:    I recommend the work of this body shop

The body shop

work (n.) – a finished job; "He doesn't excellent work / an excellent job."

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Car Accident

car accident

 

 

Read for errors

Yesterday, a neighbor accidently hit our car. He is the son of the family who his yard is behind us. The neighbor his son hit our car came over to apologize. 

We went out to look at the cars.  The car¹ the fender had a tiny scratch was his. The car the door of which was dented was ours. 

The side window's glass that had shattered was on the passenger side. The door was locked closed and unusable.

The side rear view mirror was on the ground. The mount's wires which were hanging out, was still attached to the car.

The young man was supposed to turn left on the street its end is blocked. He changed his mind and crashed into our car instead.

The neighbor promised to pay for the repairs which the cost of has not been determined.  We'll get some estimates for the repairs.

He would rather pay cash for the repairs. His insurance which its rates would rise, is only used as a back-up.

We were glad that no one was hurt.  Our neighbor's son, the confidence of which was slightly "bruised", will pay more attention next time.

apologize (v.) – be sorry; regretful

bruised (adj.) – hurt, damaged

estimate (n.) – a calculation, educated guess, an approximate amount

fender (n.) – the side part of a car that covers the wheels; Br-Eng – wing

mount (n.) – the part that attaches and supports the mirror

tiny (adj.) – small

¹optionally add a comma to create a pause between the two nouns even though the clause is identifying

 

 

 

Edit for errors — use whose or of which.

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check 21-30" button at the bottom, or click the "check" button as you go.

 

21.
Yesterday, a neighbor accidently hit our car. He is the son of the family who his yard is behind us.


22.
The neighbor his son hit our car came over to apologize.


23.
We went out to look at the cars.  The car the fender had a tiny scratch was his.


24.
The car the door of which was dented was ours. 


25.
The side window's glass that had shattered was on the passenger side.


26.
The side rear view mirror was on the ground. The mount's wires which were hanging out, was still attached to the car.


27.
The young man was supposed to turn left on the street its end is blocked. He changed his mind and crashed into our car instead.


28.
The neighbor promised to pay for the repairs which the cost of has not been determined.  We'll get some estimates for the repairs.


29.
He would rather pay cash for the repairs. His insurance which its rates would rise, is only used as a back-up.


30.
We were glad that no one was hurt.  Our neighbor's son, the confidence of which was slightly "bruised", will pay more attention next time.