All of Which

Add modifying clauses for nouns with quantity phrases

Visitors
 

 

Modifying Clauses with Quantity Expressions

[QUANTITY] OF WHICH

A quantity phrase with which is placed at the front of the modifying clause and then the clause is placed directly after the noun it modifies.

move overwho modifies Disneyland
Disneyland
, all of which belongs to the Disney Company, is located in Anaheim.

move overwho modifies Disneyland
Disneyland
, some of which is crowded with people, is a favorite tourist site.

move overwho modifies castle
Sleeping Beauty's Castle
, all of which is half-scale, is located in Fantasyland.  

[QUANTITY] OF WHOM

A quantity phrase with whom is placed at the front of the modifying clause and then the clause is placed directly after the noun it modifies.

move overwho modifies visitors
California has a lot of visitors, most of whom visit Disneyland.            

move overwho modifies children
Walt Disney was devoted to his children, all of whom adored their father.

move overwho modifies Disneyland
Disney fans
, many of whom Mr. Disney met personally, praised his projects.  

 

 The quantifying expression [quantity] of whom is used as the subject or object of the modifying clause. Whom (not who) is used because it is the object of the prepositional phrase of.

 

 

Examples of Quantity Phrase Pronouns 

some of  which

many of who(m)

most of whose (cars)

none of who(m)

two of who(m)

half of who(m)

both of which

neither of who(m)

each of which

all of whose (money)

both of whose (names)

several of which

a few of which

a little of which

a number of who(m)

Quantity Phrases can be used before  which, whom or whose +noun

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modifying Quantity Clauses

Quantifier — All of Which

 

 

 

 

All of Which in a Modifying Clause

IN SUBJECT POSITION  OF CLAUSE

Which replaces an object noun in a quantity phrase of a modifying clause. The modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies.  Below, all of which serves as the subject of the modifying clause.

The Disney Company has several parks. All of the parks / All of them are run by Disney.

  SUBJECT of MOD CLS

The Disney Company has several parks.

All of them are run by Disney. 
     arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

all of which

The Disney Company has several parks,

all of which are run by Disney.

IN OBJECT POSITION  OF CLAUSE

Which replaces an object noun in a quantity phrase of a modifying clause. The modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies.  Below, all of which serves as the object of the modifying clause.

The Disney Company has several parks. Disney runs all of the parks / all of them.

  OBJECT of MOD CLS

The Disney Company has several parks.

Disney runs all of them.
               arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

all of which

The Disney Company has several parks,

all of which Disney runs.

 

All of which, most of which, many of which, much of which, some of which, a few of which, a little of which, none of which, etc.

Commas are added when the clause adds extra information, "nice to know", but not essential to identifying the noun. See punctuation below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modifying Quantity-Clauses

Specifying "Be" Exception

 

 

 

Specifying (identifying) "be" vs. Ascriptive (describing) "be"

"BE" – SPECIFYING

When be is specifying, it is followed by a definite noun (NP, Ger/Infclause) that identifies the subject noun (NP).  The elements before and after "be" may be interchanged without affecting meaning.  "reciprocal property"

SUBJECT BE – SPEC NP  COMPLEMENT

Disneyland

is

one park.

my favorite park.

One park

My favorite park

is  

Disneyland. (reciprocal)

"BE" – ASCRIPTIVE

When be is ascriptive, it is followed by an adjective (AdjP) or an indefinite noun that describes the quality or character of the subject-noun before it.   The elements before and after "be" cannot be exchanged.

SUBJECT BE – DESC MOD COMPLEMENT

Disneyland

is

large.

a fun place. 

*Large

*A fun place

is  

Disneyland. (not reciprocal)

 

*not used  /  NP (noun phrase) / MOD – takes a modifier as its complement

a — any (unspecific-indefinite) / one — a particular one (specific-definite)

Specifying "be" with Clauses

Also see:  Specifying / Ascriptive "be" , The reason is – "Be" and Pop-Q – Specifying "be".

 

 

 

Word Order with Specifying "be" in a Modifying Clause

QUANTIFIER AS THE SUBJECT  OF THE CLAUSE

When adding a clause in which "be" specifies (identifies) the subject noun, word order follows the usual rules. A quantifying phrase with (quantity) of which is added as usual.

California has several amusement parks.  One of them is Disneyland.

  SUBJECT of MOD CLS

California has several amusement parks.

One of them is Disneyland. 
     arrow-most of the changes to most of which

 

one of which

California has several amusement parks,

one of which is Disneyland.

QUANTIFIER AS THE COMPLEMENT  OF THE CLAUSE

However, in a clause in which "be" identifies the complement-noun, the complement-noun is repositioned (reworded) as the subject of the clause.  In this way, "be" is not stranded at the end of the identifying clause.

California has several amusement parks.  Disneyland is one of them.

  COMPLEMENT of MOD CLS

California has several amusement parks.

 Disneyland is one of them.
                  arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

one of which

EXCEPTION: We avoid placing "be" at the end of a clause when "be" specifies (identifies) the noun in the quantity phrase.

one of which Disneyland *is.
                        arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

one of which is Disneyland.

 

Note that the object of the quantier phrase "one of them" modifies "parks"; therefore, we cannot simplify "one of which" to just "which".

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quantity Phrase — Many of Whom

As Subject or Object of the Modifying Clause

 

 

 

Many of Whom in a Modifying Clause

IN SUBJECT POSITION OF CLAUSE

Whom replaces a personal object noun in a quantity phrase of a modifying clause. The modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies.  Below, many of whom serves as the subject of the modifying clause.

California has a lot of visitors. Many of the visitors / Many of them come to Disneyland.

  SUBJECT of MOD CLS

California has a lot of visitors.

Many of them go to Disneyland. 
     arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

many of whom

California has a lot of visitors,

many of whom go to Disneyland.

IN OBJECT POSITION  OF CLAUSE

Whom replaces a personal object noun in a quantity phrase of a modifying clause. The modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies.  Below, many of whom serves as the object of the modifying clause.

The Disney Company has several parks.  Disney hosts many of the visitors / many of them.

  OBJECT of MOD CLS

California has a lot of visitors.

Disneyland welcomes many of them.
               arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

many of whom

California has a lot of visitors,

many of whom Disneyland welcomes.

 

All of whom, most of whom, many of whom, much of whom, some of whom, a few of whom, a little of whom, none of whom, etc.
Most of whom – the object of a preposition is replaced by whomMost of who is very informal.

host (n./ v.) – a person, place, company, or the like, that provides services, resources, etc., as for a convention or event: Our city would like to serve as host for the next Winter Olympics.  (opens its doors,  provides services or accommodations)

Add commas if the clause adds extra information that is not essential to identifying the noun. See below punctuation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forming the Clause

Quantity Phrase — Most of Whose

 

 

 

Most of Whose in a Modifying Clause

IN SUBJECT POSITION OF CLAUSE

Whose replaces a possessive personal  noun in a quantity phrase of a modifying clause. The modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies.  Below, most of whose + noun serves as the subject of the modifying clause.

We admired Walt Disney. Most of Disney's / Most of his cartoons were wonderful.

  SUBJECT of MOD CLS

We admired Walt Disney.

Most of his cartoons were wonderful. 
     arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

most of whose cartoons

We admired Walt Disney,

most of whose cartoons were wonderful.

IN OBJECT POSITION  OF CLAUSE

Whose replaces a possessive personal noun in a quantity phrase of a modifying clause. The modifying clause is placed after the noun it modifies.  Below, most of whose + noun serves as the object of the modifying clause.

We admired watch Walt Disney. We enjoyed most of Disney's cartoons / most of his cartoons.

  OBJECT of MOD CLS

We admired Walt Disney.

We enjoyed most of his cartoons.
               arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

 

most of whose cartoons.

We admired Walt Disney,

most of whose cartoons we enjoyed.

 

All of whose, most of whose, many of whose, much of whose, some of whose, a few of whose, a little of whose, none of whose, etc.
used to (semi-modal v.) – a past habit that has stopped   See Used to.
Add commas if the clause adds extra information that is not essential to identifying the noun. See below punctuation.

"Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color" 1954 – 1992  IMDB

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modifying Clause

Punctuation

 

 

 

An identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

IDENTIFYING CLAUSE

no comma usedA clause that identifies the noun before it (tells you which ones) is  an identifying clause. No commas are used.

The kids  all of whom go to my school won the biking race

The biking trophy was given to the kids (all of whom) you just met.

NONIDENTIFYING CLAUSE

use a commaA clause that adds extra, nonidentifying information is set off with comma(s).  The pronoun in the quantity phrase cannot be omitted.

The Jaguars, all of whom go to my school, won the biking race

The biking trophy was given to the Jaguars, all of whom you just met.

 

An identifying clause adds information or narrows (limits) the noun to a specific one, group or lot.  The clause helps by telling us which one. No commas are used.  It is also called restrictive, essential , or necessary clause. See That vs. Which   Some or All.

A nonidentifying clause adds extra information about a noun already identified by other means, for example, by name, by shared knowledge or context. The clause, a comment, is set off with commas (before and, if necessary, after the clause). It is also called nonrestrictive, nonessential,  or unnecessary clause. See Commas – comments.

¹An object relative pronoun cannot be omitted from (left out of) a nonidentifying clause.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

boat trip
 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*On my trip, there were forty people, most of who were from Italy.

*There were a lot of kids in my class who most were from China.

 

SOLUTION

On my trip, there were forty people, most of whom were from Italy.
Whom (not who) is used because it is the object of the prepositional phrase of.

In my class were a lot of kids who were mostly from China.

In my class were a lot of kids most of whom were from China.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

The Estate of Elvis Presley

Graceland
 

 

Read (without modifying clauses)

When Elvis died on August 16, 1977, he was by no means broke, but his estate at Graceland was costing far too much to maintain. Priscilla received a lot of suggestions from friends. Many of them had been financial advisors to Elvis.  The suggestions involved selling off Graceland.  None of them felt right to Priscilla.  Instead, Priscilla decided to open Graceland to the public. 

Today, Graceland welcomes over 600,000 visitors a year. Most of them come from outside of the city.  They bring 150 million per year into the economy of Memphis. The rooms have been left as they were in 1977. All of them are included in the tour.  Also, Elvis' personal items: costumes, wardrobe, awards are on view on the Graceland tour.  

His cars can be seen in the garage. Half of them were Cadillacs. Elvis loved Cadillacs. One of them was his favorite — a 1955 pink and white Fleetwood.

A museum across the street displays Elvis' planes.  Elvis never actually learned to fly. One of those planes was named Lisa,  

More projects are planned in the area surrounding the Graceland Mansion. A number of them include expansion. Today, Lisa Marie Presley owns 100% of Graceland Estate. EPE (Elvis Presley Enterprises) manages licensing and sales of Elvis' products. Many of them are available on their website. In 2005, several EPE shares were sold by Lisa Marie Presley. The majority of her shares were bought by an entertainment company CKX, Inc.

EPE – Elvis Presley Enterprises
estate
(n.) – all of someone's property, home and money, especially everything that is left after they die

licensing (US-Eng) / licencing (Br-Eng) – legal permission

mansion (n.) – very large home usually surrounded by fence and a gate

shares (n.) – one of the equal parts into which the ownership of a company is divided

The Story of the Elvis Presley Estate, Full story

 

 

 

 

Remove the wordiness from the story by changing the clauses with quantity expressions to modifying clauses.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.
Priscilla received a lot of suggestions from friends. Many of them had been financial advisors to Elvis.


2.
The suggestions involved selling Graceland. None of them felt right to Priscilla.


3.
Today, Graceland welcomes over 600,000 visitorsMost of them  come from outside of the city, a year.


4.
The rooms have been left as they were in 1977. All of them are included in the tour.


5.
His cars can be seen in the garage.   Half of them are Cadillacs.

6.
Elvis loved CadillacsOne of them was his favorite - a 1955 pink Fleetwood.


7.
Elvis never actually learned to fly.  One of his planes was named Lisa.


8.
More projects are planned in the area surrounding the Graceland Mansion. A number of them include expansion.


9.
EPE (Elvis Presley Enterprises) manages licensing and sales of Elvis' products Many of them are available on its website.

10.
In 2005, several EPE shares were sold by Lisa Marie PresleyThe majority of her shares were bought by an entertainment company.