Grammar-QuizzesClausesRelative Clauses › Some or All

Some or All

Recognize a "restrictive" vs. a "nonrestrictive" clause

candy
 

 

Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive

RESTRICTIVE  — SOME

When speaking in general (people, candy, cars, etc.) a restrictive clause (identifying clause) narrows the group, kind or type. It limits the general noun to a specific group or one.  (The logic of the sentence is often lost if the modifying clause is removed.)

TRUE FOR ONE (SPECIFIED BY DESCRIPTION0

Dark chocolate chunksChocolate that is 90 per cent cacao is bitter. (True for one type of chocolate.)

Chocolate […]  is bitter.  (not always true)

 

gum ballsGum that is made with natural chicle doesn't have long-lasting flavor.   (True for one type of gum.)

Gum […] doesn't have long-lasting flavor. (not always true)

modern kitchenA kitchen that has been modernized raises the value of the house.  (True for a particular kind of kitchen.)

A kitchen […] raises the value of the house. (not always true)

 

NONRESTRICTIVE — ALL

A nonrestrictive clause (nonidentifying) refers to all in general. It adds extra, nondefining information to the noun before it. The comment does not limit the noun to a smaller group. (The logic of the sentence remains if the clause is removed.)

TRUE FOR ALL  (A GENERALIZATION W/ COMMENT)

dark chocolate discsChocolate, which is enjoyed world-wide, has some health benefits. (True for all chocolate with cacao.¹)

Chocolate […] has some health benefits.  (true)

 

baby reaching for gumballBubblegum, which is irresistible to children, has long-lasting flavor.  (True of all bubblegum.²)

Bubblegum […] has long-lasting flavor.  (true) 

family in kitchenA kitchen, in which a family gathers, is the "heart" of the house. (True for most kitchens.)

A kitchen […] is the "heart" of the house.  (true) 

 

¹Some products labeled "chocolate" do not actually have cacao in them.

²Bubblegum is made from a synthetic-based gum material. See Wikipedia–"Bubblegum".

benefit (N) —something that is an advantage, a good thing or service; (V) — give advantage, do good to

define (V) — to determine or fix the boundaries or extent of

irresistible (Adj — not able to resist it; very appealing or desirable, enticing, delicious

restrict (V) — limit, narrow

Related page Comma–Comments  (aside comments)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

Punctuation

 

 

 

An Identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

IDENTIFYING CLAUSE  (RESTRICTIVE) – SOME

no comma usedA clause that identifies the noun before it (tells you which one) is not set off with Commas (which). Which or that is used. No comma(s) is/are used.

Candy that contains chocolate is dangerous to dogs. 

People who have a "sweet tooth" consume too much sugar. 

NONIDENTIFYING CLAUSE   (NONRESTRICTIVE) – ALL

use a commaA clause that adds extra, nonidentifying information is set off with comma(s).  Which (not that) is required in a non-identifying clause.

Candy, which is a sweet, is irresistible to children.

People, who don't always do what is good for them, consume a lot of sugar.

energy efficient (Adj) — saves, conserves energy

irresistible (Adj) — difficult to say "no" to.

set off (V) — separate, show as different, such as an aside comment

¹An object relative pronoun can be omitted from an identifying clause.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

People, who are under the age of 18, may not smoke. (It assumes that all people are age 18.)

Cars that are major purchases can rapidly lose their value after an accident.

SOLUTION

People who are under the age of 18 may not smoke.
(Remove the commas so that the clause identifies a specific group.)

Cars, which are major purchases, can rapidly lose their value after an accident. (Change "that" to "which" and add Commas (which). The clause does not narrow the group to a specific kind.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Some or all?    

flightless cormorant

 

Decide whether the clause refers to a some (a limited group or particular one) or all.

  1. Select commas or no commas depending on whether the clause requires puncutation. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  It is a natural enemy to rodents
MARK WITH ⇒    

rodent (N) – any small animal of the type that has long sharp front teeth, such as a rat or a rabbit

2.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒ It ate our rabbits
MARK WITH ⇒    

nuisance (Adj) – annoying or bothersome

3.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒ They have feathered wings.
MARK WITH ⇒    

feathered (Adj) – having feathers

4.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  They have vestigial wings
MARK WITH ⇒    

vestigial (Adj) – a vestigial part of the body has never developed completely or has almost disappeared, such as with the wings of kiwis and ostriches.

5.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  They love their owners
MARK WITH ⇒    


6.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  They are abandoned
MARK WITH ⇒    

abandoned (V) – left without care

7.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  They are obese
MARK WITH ⇒    

diabetes (N) – a serious disease in which there is too much sugar in the blood
obese (Adj) – extremely overweight

8.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  They exercise regularly
MARK WITH ⇒    

athlete (N) – someone who trains and participates in sports and activities requiring physical skill

9.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒ They go on walks twice a day
MARK WITH ⇒    

cardio (Adj) – relating to the heart

10.

ADD THIS CLAUSE ⇒  It has a seventy-five-inch wingspan
MARK WITH ⇒    

bird of prey (N) – of the category that hunts for food, using their keen senses, especially vision

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Is it a Bargain?

price and source

 

Read for Punctuation Errors

People who love bargains don't always consider where a product comes from before they buy it. People who are socially conscious look into where a product was made and the conditions of the workers who produced it. They tie its price to fair labor practices.

Fair labor practices which look good on paper may be hard for a consumer to actually observe when shopping.  Fair practices that are sustainable balance the wage of the worker with the price of the product.  

A fair wage to which every worker has a right depends on a good economy and demand for the product.  A fair wage on which a person can live means that the person can support himself and afford the product he makes.

The price of a product that is affordable generally has a short supply chain. It needs less packaging and transportation and it passes through fewer middlemen to get to the consumer.

The price of a product which may vary from store to store is generally lower if the product is made locally: it has a shorter trip to the market.

People who buy locally made goods (products) are making smart choices.  Consumers who drive the market need to check where a product comes from before buying it. In this way, they can encourage producers to make products using fair labor practices.

affordable — can be afforded; has enough money to buy

bargain (N) — good price, a good deal

conscious — aware, sensitive to surroundings (caring)

consumer — person who buys goods (products) and services

demand (N) — need or desire that people have for a product or service

determine (V) — cause, control, decide

drive (V) — influence, affect, cause change

look into (V) — inquire, investigate, research

looks good on paper — in plan, theoretically

the market (N) — the system in which all prices and wages depend on what goods people want to buy, how many they buy

middleman (N) — someone who buys things in order to sell them to someone else, or who helps to arrange business deals for other people

observe (V) — follow, to keep or maintain in one's action, conduct

source (N) — where something comes from

supply chain (business term) — a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

sustainable (Adj) — able to continue without causing damage or failing

 

 

 

 

Edit for Errors

  1. Edit the modifying clauses for punctuation in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 11-20" button.

 

11.
People who love bargains don't always consider where a product comes from before they buy it.


12.
People who are socially conscious look into where a product is made and the conditions of the workers who produce it. They tie its price to fair labor practices.


13.
Fair practice which looks good on paper may be hard for a consumer to put in practice in the market place.


14.
Fair practices that are sustainable balance the wage of the worker with the price of the product.


15.
A fair wage to which every worker has a right depends on a good economy and demand for the product. 


16.
A fair wage on which a person can live means that the person can support him or herself and afford the product he or she makes.


17.
The price of a product that is affordable generally has a short supply chain. It needs less packaging and transportation, and it passes through fewer "middle men" to get to the store shelf.


18.
The price of a product which may vary from store to store is generally lower if the product is made locally: it has a shorter trip to the market.


19.
People who buy locally made goods (products) are making smart choices.


20.
Consumers who drive the market need to check where a product comes from before buying it.