Some or All

Add restrictive or nonrestrictive modifying clauses

 

candy
 

 

Restrictive vs. Nonrestrictive

RESTRICTIVE  — SOME

When speaking in general (people, candy, cars, etc.) a restrictive clause (identifying clause) narrows the group, kind or type. It limits the general noun to a specific group.

Candy that contains chocolate is dangerous to dogs. bio-scientist

(True for one type of candy.)
 

People who have a "sweet tooth" consume too much sugar. sweetooth

(True for one type of people.)

NONRESTRICTIVE — ALL

A nonrestrictive clause (nonidentifying) refers to all in general. It adds non-defining information to the noun before it. The comment does not limit the noun to a smaller group.

Candy, which is a sweet, is irresistible to children. baby reaching for gumball

(True of all candy.)
 

People, who don't always do what is good for them, consume too much sugar. A person

(True for all people.)

 

fund (v.) — give or award money for the completion of a project

define (v.) — to determine or fix the boundaries or extent of

restrict (v.) — limit, narrow

Related page Comma–Comments  (aside comments)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

Punctuation

 

 

 

An Identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

IDENTIFYING CLAUSE  (RESTRICTIVE) – SOME

no comma usedA clause that identifies the noun before it (tells you which one) is not set off with commas. Which or that is used. No comma(s) is/are used.

Candy that contains chocolate is dangerous to dogs. 

People who have a "sweet tooth" consume too much sugar. 

NONIDENTIFYING CLAUSE   (NONRESTRICTIVE) – ALL

use a commaA clause that adds extra, nonidentifying information is set off with comma(s).  Which (not that) is required in a non-identifying clause.  Commas

Candy, which is a sweet, is irresistible to children.

People, who don't always do what is good for them, consume too much sugar.

energy efficient (adj.) — saves, conserves energy

irresistible (adj.) — difficult to say "no" to.

set off (v.) — separate, show as different, such as an aside comment

¹An object relative pronoun can be omitted from an identifying clause.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

People, who are under the age of 18, may not smoke. (It assumes that all people are age 18.)

Cars that are major purchases can rapidly lose their value after an accident.

SOLUTION

People who are under the age of 18 may not smoke.
(Remove the commas so that the clause identifies a specific group.)

Cars, which are major purchases, can rapidly lose their value after an accident. (Change "that" to "which" and add commas. The clause does not narrow the group to a specific kind.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Refers to Some or All    

flightless cormorant

 

Decide whether or not to add commas.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.

CLAUSE: It is a natural enemy to rodents

   

rodent (n.) – any small animal of the type that has long sharp front teeth, such as a rat or a rabbit

2.

CLAUSE: It ate our rabbits

   

troublesome (adj.) – causing problems, in an annoying way

3.

Clause: They have feathered wings

   

feathered (adj) – having feathers

4.
(kiwi, ostrich, etc.)
CLAUSE: They have vestigial wings

   

vestigial (adj.) – a vestigial part of the body has never developed completely or has almost disappeared

5.

CLAUSE: They love their owners

   


6.

CLAUSE: They are abandoned

   

abandoned (v.) – left without care

7.

CLAUSE: They are obese

   

diabetes (n.) – a serious disease in which there is too much sugar in the blood
obese (adj.) – extremely overweight

8.

CLAUSE: They exercise regularly

   

athlete (n.) – someone who trains and participates in sports and activities requiring physical skill

9.

CLAUSE: They go on walks twice a day

   

cardio (adj.) – relating to the heart

10.

CLAUSE:   They has a wing-span of about seventy-five inches

   


bird of prey (n.) – birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing, using their keen senses, especially vision

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Is it a Bargain?

price and source

 

Read for Punctuation Errors

People who love a bargain don't always consider where a product comes from before they buy it. People who are socially conscious look into where a product was made and the conditions of the workers who produced it. They tie its price to fair labor practices.

Fair labor practices which look good on paper may be hard for a consumer to actually observe when shopping.  Fair practices that are sustainable balance the wage of the worker with the price of the product.  

A fair wage to which every worker has a right depends on a good economy and demand for the product.  A fair wage on which a person can live means that the person can support himself and afford the product he makes.

The price of a product that is affordable generally has a short supply chain. It needs less packaging and transportation and it passes through fewer middlemen to get to the consumer.

The price of a product which may vary from store to store is generally lower if the product is made locally: it has a shorter trip to the market.

People who buy locally made goods (products) are making smart choices.  Consumers who drive the market need to check where a product comes from before buying it. In this way, they can encourage producers to make products using fair labor practices.

affordable — can be afforded; has enough money to buy

bargain (n.) — good price, a good deal

conscious — aware, sensitive to surroundings (caring)

consumer — person who buys goods (products) and services

demand (n.) — need or desire that people have for a product or service

determine (v.) — cause, control, decide

drive (v.) — influence, affect, cause change

look into (v.) — inquire, investigate, research

looks good on paper — in plan, theoretically

the market (n.) — the system in which all prices and wages depend on what goods people want to buy, how many they buy

middleman (n.) — someone who buys things in order to sell them to someone else, or who helps to arrange business deals for other people

observe (v.) — follow, to keep or maintain in one's action, conduct

source (n.) — where something comes from

supply chain (business term) — a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

sustainable (adj.) — able to continue without causing damage or failing

 

 

 

 

Edit for Errors

  1. Edit the modifying clauses for punctuation in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 11-20" button.

 

11.
People who love a bargain don't always consider where a product comes from before they buy it.


12.
People who are socially conscious look into where a product is made and the conditions of the workers who produce it. They tie its price to fair labor practices.


13.
Fair practice which looks good on paper may be hard for a consumer to put in practice in the market place.


14.
Fair practices that are sustainable balance the wage of the worker with the price of the product.


15.
A fair wage to which every worker has a right depends on a good economy and demand for the product. 


16.
A fair wage on which a person can live means that the person can support him or herself and afford the product he or she makes.


17.
The price of a product that is affordable generally has a short supply chain. It needs less packaging and transportation, and it passes through fewer "middle men" to get to the store shelf.


18.
The price of a product which may vary from store to store is generally lower if the product is made locally: it has a shorter trip to the market.


19.
People who buy locally made goods (products) are making smart choices.


20.
Consumers who drive the market need to check where a product comes from before buying it.