When / Where

Add modifying clauses for time or place

flower child
 

 

When and Where  - object pronouns

WHEN - REPLACES AN OBJECT NOUN

When is a time-relative pronoun that joins a modifying clause.  In the example below, the clause modifies a time.

move overwho modifies woman
The years
when the "flower children" thrived were the 1960s.
                  The "flower children" thrived  then.

move overwho modifies woman
The day
when the concert takes place is Sunday.
                  The concert takes place then.

move overwho modifies woman
The hour
when the parade begins is 12:30 p.m.
                  The parade begins then.

WHERE - REPLACES AN OBJECT NOUN

Where is a location-relative pronoun that joins a modifying clause.  In the example below, the clause modifies a place.

move overwho modifies woman
The city
where "flower children" lived was San Francisco.
              The "flower children" lived  there.

move overwho modifies woman
The site
where the concert takes place is Golden Gate Park.
              The concerts are held  there.

move overwho modifies woman
The street
where the parade begins is Broadway.
              The parade takes place  there.

 

take place (v. exp.) – occurs, happens

site (n.) – location

thrive (v.) – live and grow, expand, flourish

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forming a When/Where-Clause

Replacing the Object Noun

 

 

 

When / Where

WHEN

When replaces the object noun in the modifying clause, and the clause is placed after the noun that it modifies.

The year was memorable. You were born in that year.
The year was memorable. You were born then.

  OBJECT of MOD CLS  

The year

you were born then
                   arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

was memorable.

 

when

 

The year

when you were born

was memorable.

WHERE

Where replaces the  object noun in the modifying clause, and the clause is placed after the noun that it modifies.

The city is beautiful. You live in the city.
The city is beautiful. You live there.

  OBJECT of MOD CLS  

The city

you live there
       arrow-most of the changes to most of which 

is beautiful.

 

where

 

The city

where you live

is beautiful.

 

memorable (adj.) – special in memory

 

 

 

 

 

 

When / Where Clauses

Preposition + Which

 

 

Where can replace:

AT WHICH ON WHICH IN WHICH

exact address or residence

floor, street location, geographical place

city, area, state, country

the house at which I work is nearby.

the floor on which I work is the twelfth.

the room in which I work is here.

the building at which I work is nearby.

the street on which I work is nearby.

the city in which I work is nearby.

the address at which I work is 310 Elm St.

the corner on which I work

the state in which I pay taxes is Utah.

the location at which I work 

the island on which I work

the country in which I pay taxes is the U.S.A.

 

 

 

When can replace:

AT WHICH ON WHICH IN WHICH

hour, time of the day

day

month, season, year, decade, century

the time at which I eat lunch is noon.

the day on which I was born was snowy.

the month in which I pay taxis is April.

the hour at which I eat lunch is 12:00–1:00 p.m.

the day on which I was born was Tuesday.

the season in which I vacation is summer.

the time at which I eat lunch is 12:00 p.m.

the day on which I started school was June 1.

the years in which I worked were 2000-2011.

 

 

 

 

 

 

When/Where-Clause

Punctuation

The Haight Ashbury section
 

 

An identifying vs. Nonidentifying Clause

IDENTIFYING CLAUSE

no comma usedA clause that identifies the noun before it (tells you which one) is not set off with commas. No comma(s) is/are used. The object pronoun when or where may be omitted in an identifying clause.

The area where the "flower children" lived  was a colorful section of San Francisco.

The years when the "flower children" thrived  was a colorful decade.
 

NONIDENTIFYING CLAUSE

use a commaA clause that adds extra, nonidentifying information is set off with comma(s). The object pronoun when or where is required (cannot be omitted)  in a nonidentifying clause.

The Haight,  where the "flower children" lived,  was a colorful area in San Francisco.

The 1960s,  when the "flower children" thrived,   was a colorful decade.

 

An identifying clause adds information or narrows the noun to a specific one, group or lot.  The clause helps by telling us which one. No commas are used.  It is also called restrictive, essential , or necessary clause. See That vs. Which   Some or All.

A nonidentifying clause adds extra information about a noun already identified by other means, for example, by name, by shared knowledge or context. The clause, a comment, is set off with commas (before and, if necessary, after the clause). It is also called nonrestrictive, nonessential,  or unnecessary clause. See Commas – comments.

¹An object relative pronoun cannot be omitted from (left out of) a nonidentifying clause.

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

The Right Time or Place

mapcalendar
 

 

Change when or where to a which-clause

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 1-10" button at the bottom.

 

1.
Monday is the day when we begin the work week.


(Optionally omit "the day".)

2.
Midnight is the time when the date changes.
(Optionally omit "the time".)

3.
Three-fifty Main street is the address where you can write me.

(Optionally omit "the address".)

4.
The lake where we swam was clean and clear.

5.
2001 was the year when the new century began.
(Optionally omit "the year".)

6.
Seven o'clock is the time when I get up.

7.
California is the state where I live.

8.
Parking lot D is the place where I parked my car.

(Optionally omit "the location".)

9.
Summer is the time when people enjoy warmer weather.

(Optionally omit "the season".)

10.
The backyard is the place where we can relax outside.

(Optionally omit "the area".)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

The Ferry Building

The San Francisco Ferry Building
 

 

Read the Context

Every day hundreds of people pass through the San Francisco Ferry Building, a place where a variety of products and services are available. The San Francisco Ferry Building is the place where commuters catch their ferries at. It is also a place where people come to walk and watch activity on the bay. The area inside in which people shop for food is also where people can find restaurants and shops. Shops where you can buy meat, cheese, bread, mushrooms, plants, coffee, herbs, and so on.

The Ferry Building was built at a time there were no bridges in 1875. People had to take a train to the Berkeley or Oakland ferry terminals, there they would catch a ferry to San Francisco. When the Bay Bridge opened in 1936, the Ferry Building became an unnecessary place at which the ferries were forgotten. In the 1970s, when the traffic on the bridge made the commute difficult, ferry boat service resumed. Now the Ferry Building serves as an activity center where San Franciscans shop, eat, catch transportation, and relax near the water.

available (adj.) – easy to find or get

commuter (n.) – a person traveling to and from a place of work

ferry (n.) – a commercial service with terminals and boats for transporting persons, automobiles across small bodies of water.

resume (v.) – restart

terminal (n.) – station

variety (n.) – having different kinds or types of things

 

 

 

 

Correct or Incorrect

  1. Decide whether the sentence is "correct" or "incorrect". Select your response—correct / incorrect.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 11-20" button at the bottom.

 

11.
Every day hundreds of people pass through the San Francisco Ferry Building, a place where a variety of products and services are available.

   

12.
The San Francisco Ferry Building is the place where commuters catch their ferries at.

   

13.
It is also a place where people come to walk and watch activity on the bay. 

   

14.
The area inside in which people shop for food is also where people can find restaurants and shops.

   

15.
Shops where you can buy meat, cheese, bread, mushrooms, plants, coffee, herbs, and so on.

   

16.
The Ferry Building was built at a time there were no bridges in 1875.

   

17.
People had to take a train to the Berkeley or Oakland ferry terminals, there they would catch a ferry to San Francisco.

   

18.
When the Bay Bridge opened in 1936, the Ferry Building became an unnecessary place at which the ferries were forgotten.

   

19.
In the 1970s, when the traffic on the bridge made the commute difficult, ferry boat service resumed.

   

20.
Now the Ferry Building serves as a center of activity where San Franciscans shop, eat, catch transportation, and relax near the water.

   

 

 

Ferry Building Market Place

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

The Galata Bridge

Galata Bridge
 

Read the Context

The Galata Bridge in Istanbul is a unique location in the world.  It spans the Golden Horn at a site in which a natural harbor forms. It is the exact place in which the Bosphorus flows into the sea of Marmara.  It is also the place at which the old Istanbul meets the new. 

This is the fifth bridge in this location. The last bridge was destroyed in 1992 the year in which a fire badly damaged it. The bridge has three car lanes and one lane on which trams go.

In the evening, the time in which fisherman come to catch their evening meals, the bridge becomes a bustling place. Sunset is also the time at which the faithful are called to prayer. Tourists and locals walk along the first deck on which there are a number of restaurants and shops. Fisherman stand side by side at the railing at which they cast their lines into the water. Never is there a time at which the bridge is not completely occupied and bustling with people.

bustling (adj.) – busy, constantly moving

cast (v.) – throw, especially in fishing He cast his fish net.

deck (n.) – a floor or roadway on a bridge

harbor (n.) – a location where boats enter away from strong wanter currents

line (n.) – plastic-like string that winds around the reel on a fishing pole

locals (n.) – local people who live nearby

occupied (adj.) – in use

railing (n.) – the metal fence or barrier that keeps people from falling off

spans (v.) – crosses; reaches across; goes across

unique (adj.) – one of a kind

 

 

 

Change the which-clause to a when or where clause.

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or the "Check 21-30" button at the bottom.

 

21.
The Galata Bridge in Istanbul is a unique location in the world.  The bridge spans the Golden Horn at a site in which a natural harbor forms. 


22.
It is the exact place in which the Bosphorus flows into the sea of Marmara.


23.
It is also the place at which the old Istanbul meets the new. 


24.
This is the fifth bridge in this location. The last bridge was destroyed in 1992 the year in which a fire badly damaged it.


25.
The bridge has three car lanes and a lane on which trams go.


26.
In the evening, the time in which fisherman come to catch their evening meals, the bridge becomes a bustling place.


27.
Sunset is also the time at which the faithful are called to prayer.


28.
Tourists and locals walk along the first deck on which there are a number of restaurants and shops.


29.
Fisherman stand side by side at the railing at which they cast their lines into the water.


30.
Never is there a time at which the bridge is not completely occupied and bustling with people.


 

 

"Galata Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey." Lonely Planet, 2013. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.

Wikipedia contributors. "Galata Bridge." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Feb. 2013.