The – Included Parts

Refer to expected parts within a mentioned noun

puzzle piece fitting into puzzle
 

 

3) Known as an expected part of a mentioned item

FIRST MENTION – A

The first time a noun is mentioned, use a.

  Let's do a puzzle.

KNOWN AS AN INCLUDED PART  – THE

After mentioning a noun, you can refer to its parts with – the

puzzle pieces The pieces of the puzzle are in the box. 

 

 

 

 

 

EXPECTED PART

When mentioning a larger item, the smaller parts also become known.  This is true only if the smaller parts are expected to be there.

A  HOUSE

I'd like to see the kitchen, please.   Every house is expected to have a kitchen.

A  CAR

I'd like to see the engine? Every car is expected to have an engine.

COMPUTER

Where is the on-off buttonEvery computer is expected to have a power button.

CITY

Where is  the fire stationEvery city is expected to have a central fire station.

NOT EXPECTED

If we are unsure whether the larger item includes a smaller part, we use abefore the part or item

A  HOUSE

*I'd like to see the basement, please.  The house might not have one.

Does this house have a basement?   Some house have one and some don't.

A  CAR

*I'd like to see the gas tank.

Does this car have a gas tankMost cars have one, but electric cars don't.

COMPUTER

*Where is the keyboard

Does this device have a keyboardMost computers / devices have one, but some don't.

CITY

*Where is  the public swimming pool?

Where is  a public swimming pool? Some cities have one and some don't.

 

*Only used if this a part that one can expect the larger item to have.

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The"

Summary of Uses

 

 

 

Link MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION CONTEXTUAL EXAMPLE

Page focus

The noun is identified by:

The is used as part of a larger context or understanding.

The-Earlier Mention   

1)  by earlier, second mention

This is a puzzle piece. The piece fits into a puzzle. 

The-Earlier Mention   

2)  by another name (synonym)

This is a puzzle piece. The parts are rather small.  (a piece = a part)

current page this page 

3)  as an expected part of a larger item

This is a puzzle.  The pieces are inside the box. 

The-Later Mention 

4)  by a phrase or clause after it

The part on top is here.  /  The part that I am holding is a corner.

The-Shared Knowl 

5)  by both knowing or seeing it

Hand me the piece.   (We both know / see which one.)

The-Shared Knowl 

6)  by its uniqueness (It is the only one.)

Hand me the last piece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The— Expected Parts

Culturally included items

 

 

 

The – every town has one

BUILIDINGS

The is used before things every town is expected to have: buildings, services and people, even if there is more than one!  We can also use a in most cases.

police stationWhere's the police station?


Is there a police station nearby?

hospitalWhere's the hospital?

Is there a hospital nearby?

fire stationWhere's the fire station?

libraryWhere's the library?

airportWhere's the airport?

movieLet's go to the movies.

parkLet's go to the park.

 

PEOPLE

The is used before people that every town is expected to have.   In most cases, we can also use a

doctor spanking baby

I have to go to the doctor. Use "the" even though the listener may not know exactly which doctor.
*I have to go to my / a doctor.

I have to find a doctor who is a heart specialist.

judgeTell it to the judge.

I had to appear in court.
The judge rules in my favor.

policeCall the police. (plural)

*Call a police.
I asked a police officer for help.

dentistI'm going to the dentist's today.

I'm going to a dentist's today.
I'm going to see a dentist today.

mailmanHas the mailman come yet. (specific) 

Use "the" even though there may be more than one who delivers mail to your house.

Has a mailman come yet.  (unspecific)

garbage manThe garbageman comes early.

librarianAsk the librarian where to find the book.

Use "the" even though there may be more than one.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Expected Parts of Objects

 

 

Decide whether to use a or the.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

1.
beehive

2.

 


3.
Our DVD player is having trouble again. DVD player

4.
I bought a new television.    tv and remote

5.
My new camera takes beautiful pictures.    camera

6.
A book was lying on the patio table.     book

7.
"What an unusual clock."
    " clock

8.
mouseI can't use that computer.  

9.
box cutterThis box cutter is dull.  

10.
a chipped dishWe have to repair this dish .  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

Airport Snag

airport conveyor
 

 

Read the Context

 ___ airport in Tenerife had problems with its baggage system. Airport workers had a probem with ___ conveyor belts. ___ electricity had to be turned off while they fixed the problem. ___ electricians had to be called in to assist. 

Most problems with baggage equipment seem to involve ___ program error. However, ___ problem in this situation was a backpack that was caught in the machinery.

In this case, ___ difficulty was that the owner of ___ backback had forgotten to secure it well.  One of ___ straps had gotten caught (stuck) in the conveyor belt. ___ worker had to cut the strap out of the machinery.backpack

conveyor belt (v.) — the moving platform (often circular or oval) from which travelers retrieve their baggage after a trip

get caught (v.phrase) — accidently become stuck, be tightly between two parts of equipment

machinery (n.) — general word for equipment with motors

program error (n.) — a computer operation error

secure (v.) —  tighten or fasten; (tuck in the straps and close all zippers)

snag (n.) — something that catches, entangles, impedes or obstructs; (v.) grab

straps (n.) — long pieces of material that hold or suspend something

 

 

 

 

Determine which article to use.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. ("0" – no article).
  2. Compare your responses to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-10" button.

 

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

Buying a Used Car

car
 

 

Read for Errors

Jess is buying "previously owned" car. He is checking it over carefully. Body and paint are in very good condition. Interior and seat covers are a bit dirty. Windows are in excellent condition. Tires need replacing because they are very worn. There is dent in rear bumper.

Car also has air conditioning and leather seats. Last owner installed a navigational system, which is very useful. Fortunately, mileage is low, and the price is right. If Jess likes car, he will request to have a mechanic look at it. Then if it is acceptable, he will pay price and receive registration papers.

body (n.) – exterior of the car

dent (n.) – a damaged part that is pushed inward

mileage (n.) – the number of miles the car has travelled

previously (adv.) – at an earlier time

 

 

 

 

Edit the sentence for errors.

  1. Edit the sentence(s) in the text box.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

21.
Jess is buying "previously owned" car. He is checking it over carefully. 


22.
Body and paint are in very good condition.


23.
Interior and seat covers are a little dirty.


24.
Tires need replacing because they are very worn.


25.
There is also dent in rear bumper.


26.
Car also has air conditioning and leather seats.


27.
Last owner installed navigational system, which is very useful.


28.
Fortunately, mileage is low, and price is right.


29.
If Jess likes car, he will request to have a mechanic look at it.


30.
Then if it is acceptable, he will pay price and receive registration papers.