Articles w/ Nationality Names (Demonyms)

Recognize word forms for nationality

 

 

 

Referring to Nationality

COUNTRY ORIGIN / LANGUAGE THE PEOPLE A PERSON

Use no article when referring to a country with a single  or a merged name¹. (more info)

Use the before countries (1) with plural names the Philippines, the Maldives; (2) with names containing a noun stating the kind of state the republic, the kingdom, the principality and so on; (3) and capitalize the before official names The Bahamas or The Gambia.

Use no article before an adjective for national origin (except when specifying the class of a particular item: He thinks the Mexican chocolate is fruitier than the Venezuelan chocolate.)

When referring to the national name of the people in general, no article is used. (Use plural form). When referring to the group specifically, use the before the name for the people.

Use a / an before a national noun for a person.  A nationality ending in -ese sounds better as an adjective followed by a noun such as citizen, national or person.

PATTERN 1 -AN, -IAN SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

flag of MexicoMexico is in North America.

 

 

 

 

Mexican chocolateMexican chocolate is delicious.

The official Mexican language is Spanish.

 

The MexicansMexicans are an ethnically diverse people.

The Mexicans are made up of native and European immigrants.

Frida Kahlo A Mexican named Frida Kahlo was an extraordinary artist.

PATTERN 2 -ESE SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

flag of JapanJapan is in the north Pacific Ocean.

 

 

 

Japanese auto manufacturingJapanese economy influences the rest of the world.

Japanese is spoken here.

The JapaneseJapanese people consist of people who are 95.5% of Japanese origin.

The Japanese people have the longest life expectancy in the world.

Ichiro SuzukiA Japanese baseball player named Ichiro plays for the Seattle Mariners.

A Japanese person, Fujita, invented a scale for rating tornado intensity.

*A Japanese / A Japanese man / Two Japanese men… (woman, citizen, individual, person.)

PATTERN 3 -I SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

Saudi Arabian FlagSaudi Arabia is located on the Arabian Peninsula.

 

 

Saudi Arabian DatesSaudi (Arabian) dates are exported around the world.

Arabic is spoken here.

 

 

Saudi Arabian PeopleSaudis (Saudi Arabians) speak three variations of Arabic.

The Saudis come from a variety of regions.

a Saudi (Arabian) A Saudi can receive free education.

A Saudi woman can also receive an education.

 

PATTERN 4 -ISH,-SH, -CH SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

The Union flagEngland is in northern Europe.

English teaEnglish tea is known around the world.

English is used around the world.

The English language is spoken here.

 

The EnglishThe English are proud of their history.

*The Englishes/ English drink tea.

an EnglishmanAn Englishman.

Two Englishmen here.

An Englishman spoke to us about the history of England. 

PATTERN – OTHERS SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

flag of GreeceGreece is in southern Europe.

 

 

thegreeksThe letters are Greek.

Greek is spoken here.

 

 

thegreeks

Greeks are proud of their teams.

The Greeks are the first to enter the games.

 

 

A greekA Greek won the race.

 

 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

¹ The Gambia is an exception.

Also see Pop-Q "Nationality" and The Group,  The-Countries

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country, Origin and People

Referring to nationality –  an / - ian

 

 

 

Pattern 1 –an / -ian

THE COUNTRY THE ORIGIN / CULTURE / LANGUAGE THE PEOPLE A PERSON

a noun

an adjective for people, culture and sometimes their language

a noncount noun (always plural)

a count noun (singular or plural)

-AN SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

Afghanistan

Afghan (Dari Persian, Pashto, others)

the Afghans

an Afghan  (Afghani is the currency)

Africa

African

the Africans

an African

Chile

Chilean

the Chileans

a Chilean

Germany

German

the Germans

a German

Jamaica

Jamaican  (culture only)  English / Creole

the Jamaicans

a Jamaican

Mexico

Mexican

the Mexicans

a Mexican

Monaco

Mongasque / Monacan / French, Monégasque (lang.)

Mongasque / Monacan

a Mongasque / Monacan

Morocco

Moroccan

the Moroccans

a Moroccan

Palau

Palauan

the Palauans

a Palauan

Tonga

Tongan

the Tongans

a Tongan

United States of America

American (culture only)

the Americans, U.S. Americans

an American, a U.S. American

Venezuela  

Venezuela

the Venezuela

a Venezuelan

-IAN SOURCE / ORIGIN THE PEOPLE A PERSON

Argentina

Argentinean

the Argentineans / the Argentines

an Argentinean / Argentine

Austria

Austrian

the Austrians

an Austrian

Australia

Australian

the Australians

an Australian / Aussie

Belgium

Belgian

the Belgians

a Belgian

Brazil

Brazilian

the Brazilians

a Brazilian

Cambodia

Cambodian

the Cambodians

a Cambodian

Canada

Canadian

the Canadians

a Canadian

Colombia

Colombian

the Colombian

a Colombian

Croatia

Croatian

the Croats, Croatians

a Croat, a Croatian

El Salvador

Salvadoran

the Salvadorans, Salvadorians

a Salvadoran, Salvadorian

Hungary

Hungarian

the Hungarians

a Hungarian

India

Indian

the Indians

an Indian

Indonesia

Indonesian

the Indonesians

an Indonesian

Iran

Iranian

the Iranians

an Iranian

Norway

Norwegian

the Norwegians

a Norwegian

Peru

Peruvian

the Peruvians

a Peruvian

Rumania

Rumanian

the Rumanians

a Rumanian

Russia

Russian

the Russians

a Russian

Saudi Arabia

Saudi, Saudi Arabian

the Saudis, the Saudi Arabians

a Saudi, a Saudi Arabian

Tunisia

Tunisian

the Tunisians

a Tunisian

Ukraine

Ukrainian

the Ukrainians

a Ukrainian

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country, Origin and People

Referring to nationality – ese

 

 

 

Pattern 2  – ese

COUNTRY ORIGIN / CULTURE / LANGUAGE THE PEOPLE A PERSON

a noun

an adjective for people, culture and sometimes their language

a noun  (plural)

a count noun (singular)    Use this form as an adjective with a noun such as: citizen, national, or person.

Burma  He is from Burma.

Burmese  He is Burmese.

the Burmese   The Burmese are a strong people.

a Burmese (person)

China

Chinese

the Chinese

a Chinese  (person)

Portugal

Portuguese

the Portuguese

a  Portuguese (person)

Japan

Japanese

the Japanese

a Japanese (person)

Lebanon

Lebanese

the Lebanese

a Lebanese (person)

Sudan

Sudanese

the Sudanese

a Sudanese (person)

Taiwan

Taiwanese

the Taiwanese

a Taiwanese person

Vietnam

Vietnamese

the Vietnamese

a Vietnamese (person)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country, Origin and People

Referring to nationality –  -i

 

 

 

Pattern 3  –i

THE COUNTRY THE ORIGIN / CULTURE / LANGUAGE THE PEOPLE A PERSON

a noun

an adjective for people, culture and often language

a noncount noun (always plural)

a count noun (singular or plural)

Bangladesh

Bangladesh(i)

the Bangladeshi

a Bangladeshi

Iraq

Iraqi

the Iraqis

an Iraqi

Israel

Israeli

the Israelis

an Israeli

Pakistan

Pakistani

the Pakistanis

a Pakistani

Saudi Arabia

Saudi, Saudi Arabian

the Saudis, the Saudi Arabians

a Saudi, a Saudi Arabian

The United Arab Emirates

Emirian, Emirati

the Emirian, the Emirati

an Emirian, an Emirati

Yemen

Yemeni, Yemenite

the Yemenis

a Yemeni

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country, Origin and People

Referring to nationality –  -ish / -man, -woman

 

 

 

Pattern 4  –ish, -sh, -ch / -man, -woman

THE COUNTRY THE ORIGIN / CULTURE / LANGUAGE THE PEOPLE A PERSON

a noun

an adjective for people, culture and often language

a noncount noun (always plural)

a count noun (singular or plural)

England

English

the English

two Englishmen / Englishwomen

France

French

the French

a Frenchman/ Frenchwoman

Holland

Dutch

the Dutch

a Dutchman/ Dutchwoman

Ireland

Irish

the Irish

an Irishman/ Irishwoman

Wales

Welsh

the Welsh

a Welshman/ Welshwoman

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country, Origin and People

Referring to nationality – others

 

 

 

Others

THE COUNTRY THE ORIGIN / CULTURE / LANGUAGE THE PEOPLE A PERSON

a noun

an adjective for people, culture and often language

a noncount noun (always plural)

a count noun (singular or plural)

Argentina

Argentinean

the Argentineans / Argentines

an Argentinean / Argentine

Bangladesh

Bangladesh(i)

the Bangladeshi

a Bangladeshi

Croatia

Croatian

the Croats

a Croat

the Czech Republic

Czech

the Czechs

a Czech

Denmark

Danish

the Danes

a Dane

Finland

Finnish

the Finns

a Finn

Greece

Greek

the Greeks

a Greek

Hong Kong

English / Cantonese

Citizens of Hong Kong

a citizen of Hong Kong (Hong Konger)

Iceland

Icelandic

the Icelanders

an Icelander

Iraq

Iraqi

the Iraqis

an Iraqi

Israel

Israeli

the Israelis

an Israeli

Liechtenstein

Liechtensteiner

the Liechtensteiners

a Liechtensteiner

the Philippines

Philippine

the Filipinos

a Filipino / a Filipina

Poland

Polish

the Poles

a Pole

Saudi Arabia

Saudi, Saudi Arabian

the Saudis, the Saudi Arabians

a Saudi, a Saudi Arabian

Scotland

Scottish

the Scots

a Scot

Serbia

Serbian

the Serbs

a Serb

The Slovak Republic

Slovak

the Slovaks

a Slovak

Spain

Spanish

the Spaniards

a Spaniard

Sweden

Swedish

the Swedes

a Swede

Switzerland

Swiss

the Swiss  (no plural)

a Swiss

Thailand

Thai

the Thais

a Thai

The United Arab Emirates

Emirian, Emirati

the Emirian, the Emirati

an Emirian, an Emirati

Turkey

Turkish

the Turks

a Turk

Uzbekistan

Uzbek

the Uzbek

an Uzbek / Uzbeki

Yemen

Yemeni, Yemenite

the Yemenis

a Yemeni

Yugoslavia

Yugoslav

the Yugoslavs

a Yugoslav

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*One neighbor is a Turk and the other is an English(noun)

*The Englishes colonized North America.

English built the Titanic and the Queen Mary. ships

*One neighbor is a Irishman and the other is a Chinaman(not used anymore)

SOLUTION

One neighbor is a Turk and the other is an Englishman(noun)

The English colonized North America.

The English built the Titanic and the Queen Mary.

One neighbor is an Irishman and the other is a Chinese national or citizen  / is from China(noun) 

A Chinese sounds awkward. Adding a noun such as citizen, national, person, etc is a quick fix.  National names for people change through time. It is best to look the name up:  Hong Konger, Taiwaner, Argentine, etc.  Google "demonyms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Class Diversity

students
 

 

Complete the sentence with the correct word form of nationality.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

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