|PLURALS FORMED WITH -S|
Plurals formed from numbers and letters that can be easily understood from context are formed with a final s. ("letters and numbers used as words")
|ABBREVIATIONS WITHOUT PERIODS—MULTIPLE LETTERS|
He sells TVs (LCDs, PCs, DVDs, MP3s, HDMIs, DPIs, USBs) technology terms
Please review your W-2s. (10-40s IRAs, 401ks) tax term s
Show me the URLs. (SQLs, GUIs, OSs¹)
The IQs of the scientists were high.
The three Rs. (CMOS 7.65)
PhDs and MAs are required. (Note the absence of "interior" periods.) (MLA 3.2.7g.) (APA 4.29) (GREGG 622 a.)
All the IBMs in our office work well. (products from the company)
The ship sent out a number of SOSs. (emergency messages)
|ABBREVIATIONS WITH FIGURES & EXPRESSIONS|
The FAA approved the landing of 747s at that airport.
The store had no more size 7s.
The toddler was in his terrible twos. (write out "2")
The temperature is in the 90s. (degrees)
He received two As and three Bs and two Cs. (CMOS 7.64)
BUT In APA, place the letter in italics. (APA 4.29)
The dos and don'ts / pros and cons / why and wherefores / ups and downs / the haves and the have-nots / yeas and nays / ins and outs / No ifs, ands, or buts.
Add -s when the base word is easily understood by the reader. (GREGG 625)
|A DECADE / CENTURY|
Great musicians arose in the 1900s / 1960s. (CMOS 7.15, MLA 3.7.2 g.) (AP 188)
The '60s music. The apostrophe marks the omission of part of the number.
The Roaring 20s was a time when…
|PLURALS FORMED WITH APOSTROPHE|
Plurals formed from numbers and letters that cannot be easily understood are formed by an apostrophe + s. The apostrophe separates the plural suffix from the base.
|ABBREVIATIONS WITH CAPITALS AND PERIODS / FINAL S|
Ph.D.'s, M.D.’s and C.P.A.’s earn high salaries. (alternate MA's / PhD's– without internal periods) (CMOS 7.16)
A few style manuals require a period after each initial of a proper noun (J. F. K.) unless the initials form a word or company name, such as IBM. (CMOS 7.16)
The Yahoo!'s of the the business world are… (and similar Internet companies)
BUT The new OS's are… [operating systems]
"Mind your p’s and q’s." or "Mind your Ps and Qs."
The word accommodation has two c's and two m's.
Put on your pj's. Send me cc's or bcc's of your emails.
The x's and y's in a mathetmatical equation…
BUT: He received A’s, B's and C’s on his report card. When the context is clear, use As, Bs and Cs. (GREGG 622 b.)
no-nos / no-no's either form (Merriam-Webster)
The 1960's were… [possessive or plural noun modifier]
The 1968's music was great. [occurs as a possessive only]
(AP 325) (APA 4.29) (CMOS 7.15) (GREGG 622-4) (MLA 3.2.7g.)
¹ An apostrophe marks the boundary of the base word if the word is likely to be misread with the -s suffix.
Mind your p's and q's. (expression) – behave yourself; mind your manners
No if's and's or but's (expression) – no excuses
three Rs (expression) – reading, writing and arithmetic (reading, 'riting, 'rithmetic)
Style Manual Abbreviations: AP (Associated Press), APA (American Psychological Association), CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style),GREGG (Gregg Reference Manual), MLA (MLA Handbook)
The Consumer Electronics Show, a global consumer electronics and technology tradeshow, takes place every January in Las Vegas, Nevada, US. A number of activities and events take place. CEO will reveal new products and services for the coming year. New OS will be released for PC.
Inventors, with and without PhD or MA, will wow us with new and useful gadgets. The conference will offer a number of hands-on opportunities. Workshops will take place in the a.m. and discussions will take place in the p.m.
Afterwards, individuals will break out into groups of two or three and brainstorm ideas.
The following week the International Auto Exposition will take place. A number of new BMW will be on display. The company will quickly sell out of its new EV. Ford will show off its new light weight F-150 while Audi will show off its new S4. Auto executives will no doubt be giving each other high-five.
BMW (Bavarian Motor Works) — a popular automaker; or a reference to its products.
CEO (Chief Executive Officer) — the highest-ranking corporate officer or executive
EV (electronic vehicle) — a vehicle that runs on energy from a battery rather than fossil fuel (gasoline).
F-150 — a popular model of Ford's pickup trucks
gadget (N) — a useful device or tool
GPS (Global Positioning System) — a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information
hands-on (modifier) a physical learning experience
high-five — a celebratory hand gesture of slapping palms together in the air
S4— an Audi car model
sell out (V) — run out of items (cars) to sell; deplete its stock of car
tradeshow (N) — an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, services and activities
wow (V) (informal) — surprise; astonish
Drive-ins, which were common in the 1950's and 1960's, were great ways to see full-length, feature movies in the comfort of family cars. For the price of admission, about a dollar per car, viewers received a pair of speakers and a parking spot. Carhops (waiters on roller-skates) came by selling candy-corn, ding-dong's, ho-ho's and soft drinks.
Some couples watched movies from the front seat while their small-fry's slept in their pjs in the back seat. Others watched in cars with convertible-top, which were opened up for better viewing. Still others watched from the cargo-bed of pick-up truck, which were parked backwards. Whole families sat in the back with cushions, blankets and lawn chairs.
Unlike theaters where people had to mind their ps and qs, drive-ins were informal and relaxed environments. If you didn't like hearing someone talking during the movie, you rolled up your window.
Intermission breaks were equally amusing. People got out and stretched their legs and chatted with passer-bys. Guys checked out each other's "wheels", and girls admire each other's up-dos. Goes-between introduced guys to girls and vice versa. And some car windows steamed up. (A no-no!)
In the late 1950s, one-third of the theaters in the US were drive-ins; however, now only about 350 remain. Economics, new technology and urban-sprawl have squeezed out the once popular venues.
ding-dongs and ho-hos — old-fashion snack cakes (1950s–1970s)
go-between (expression) — a person who acts as an agent or intermediary between persons or groups; a match-maker
small-fry (slang) — young fish; young children
steam up (slang) – become opaque (not clear) with moisture due to heavy breathing (love-making)
stretch one's legs (V) – stand up, walk, move about
urban-sprawl (N) — expanding city limits and decreasing open spaces
up-do (N) — a hairstyle worn up
venue (N) — the place, scene or locale of any action or event
vice versa (Latin) — "and the other way around"
wannabe (expression) — fans; imitators desiring success
wheels (slang) — cars