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Affect vs. Effect

Influence or Outcome

thin models in fashion
 

 

Affect vs. Effect

AFFECT 

Affect expresses an action with the meaning have an influence or cause change (sway, modify, alter, touch, stir).

VERB

Seeing thin models affects / influences young girls' self image.

Being severely underweight badly affects / destroys health.

Fashion images affect / sway our desires.

A young girl said, "Yes, it affects / gets to me too." 

I am affected / influenced by the images I see on TV.

The death of the young singer affected / touched us all.

EFFECT

Effect expresses a state, a result (outcome issue, consequence). It is a noun with a determiner (article) before it.

NOUN

The effect / outcome on a young girl may be self-hate. 

One effect / consequence of being underweight  is hair loss.

The effect / result is that we spend money foolishly.

A young girl said, "Yes, it has an effect / influence on me too." 

The effect / impression of the TV images is that people feel inadequate.

The effect / impact on us was profound sadness.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Affect / Effect

As Verbs

Dove normal body size models
 

 

Affect vs. Effect Verbal  Expressions

AFFECT — VERB

Affect is used as a verb. (As a noun, it is limited to use in psychology for feeling, emotion or response.)

AFFECT

Dove Soap included average-size models in their ads to positively affect the self-image of young women.

You can affect the policy makers by boycotting their magazines.

 
 
 

You can affect the policy makers by boycotting their magazines.

A woman announced, "Yes, our boycott will affect magazine profits and force them to make changes."

The judge's settlement affected the hiring of fashion show models.

 
EFFECT — VERBAL EXPRESSIONS

 Effect is less commonly used as a verb except inthe expressions: 1) have an effect on;   2)   effect change, a settlement, or a decision in legal language.

HAVE AN EFFECT ON  (VP)

Dove Soap included average-size models in their ads to have a positive effect on the self-image of women. 

Boycotts have an effect on company profits.  (are able to influence) 

Loss of profits will have an effect on company managers.  (will influence) 

The settlement had effect on models who are too thin. (was able to influence) 

EFFECT CHANGE  (VP)

You can effect a change in policy by boycotting (not buying) their magazines. (bring about  / actively work to change)  

A  protestor said to a news reporter, "Managers can effect change if they choose to do the right thing." (produce change)  

Dove Soap effected a change to include normal-size models in their ads. (planned and put in action)  

The judge effected a settlement between the too-thin runway model and the show directors who hired and fired her.  (ruled on / arbitrated)
 

 

boycott (v.) – an organized plan to not buy from or deal with a company or country.
(VP) – verbal phrase

 

 

 

 

 

 

Affect

Additional Meanings

 

 

VARIANT MEANING EXAMPLES

CHANGE SOMETHING (v.)

Not having enough food affected her bone growth.

INFLUENCE FEELINGS (v.)

The movie affected me so much that I can't stop thinking about it.

ATTACK WITH DISEASE (v.)

Influenza affects millions of people each year.

BEHAVE IN A FAKE WAY
PRETEND  (v., adj, n.)

Madonna affected a British accent in her interview even though she is American.
Her mannerisms were affected.  Her affectation of speech was easily noticed.

FONDNESS  (n., adj.)

Her affection for her family was great. She was very affectionate with them. 
Formerly, "affect" was used and meant "to love or regard with fondness". We still use this older meaning in the words: "affection" and "affectionate".

fake – unnatural; false; imitation
n. –noun; v. – verb;  v.p. – verb phrase

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effect

Additional Meanings

 

 

 

Effect – Expressions

VARIANT MEANING EXAMPLES

A RESULT (n.)

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction with body image is often a cultural effect.

AN INFLUENCE (n.)

She was under the effect of diet pills that made her irritable.

AN INTENT / ESSENCE (n.)

The effect of their plan was to remove harmful images from their daughters' magazines.

A VISUAL IMPRESSION (n.)

Air brushing and other special effects change the appearance of models on magazine covers.

POWER TO INFLUENCE (v.p.)

Glamorous images have an effect on young girls.

BECOME OPERATIVE (v.p.)

The law will go into effect at the first of the year.

The new law would take effect immediately.  (begin to produce results)

PRODUCE AN INTENDED RESULT (adj)

They hope the law will be effective.

PERSONAL EFFECTS (n.)

When she left, she took her personal effects with her. (belongings)

TO THE EFFECT (with the meaning)

She became thin to the effect she was too weak to walk and fainted often.

IN EFFECT (in essence, actually)

They stopped hiring too-thin models which in effect meant the models would need to gain some weight to be hired.

A SCIENTIFIC EFFECT (physics)

The domino effect is a chain reaction that occurs when a small change causes a similar change nearby and so on.

n. –noun; v. – verb;  v.p. – verb phrase
Wikipedia, "List of Effects", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_effects

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*If General Motors fails, it will have a domino affect on the rest of the country.

*I didn't like how the medicine effected me.

*The medicine had some strange affects on me.

*I was effected by what he said to me.

SOLUTION

If General Motors fails, it will have a domino effect on the rest of the country.   domino effect = one unit brings down the next, and the next, etc.

I didn't like how the medicine affected me.   

The medicine had some strange effects on me.  

I was affected by what he said to me.

What he said had an effect on me. (made an impression of me) 

 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

Solution - lightbulb Pop-Q "Affect-Effect"
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder"

Seeking beauty
 

 

The perception of beauty is subjective – each person has his/her own opinion. 

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or " check 1-15" button.
1.

body image= our opinion of how we compare to cultural standards of beauty

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Practice 2

"A dog that brings a bone will carry a bone."

gossip
 

 

Read for Errors

Gossip has several negative affects not only on the person being gossiped about but also on the gossiper. Gossip effects a person's reputation. It can have a damaging effect on the victim's personal relationships with others. In the same way, it can effect the gossiper's relationships because it raises doubts and mistrust.  That is, a person capable of gossiping about someone else is also capable of gossiping about you.

Gossip humiliates a person to the affect that he or she may become depressed and unable to function well socially. This cruelty negatively affects the self-esteem of the gossiper as well. The gossiper knows that the more damage inflicted, the greater his/her own popularity will be. In effect, the person becomes reliant of this form of "entertainment". When it fails, and eventually it does, the gossiper becomes the subject of gossip.

cruelty (n.) – the process of willfully or knowingly causing pain or distress to others

gossip (n.) – information that is passed from one person to another about other people's behavior and private lives, often including unkind or untrue remarks

humiliate (v.) –  cause a person to feel loss of respect, pride, or dignity

reputation (n.) – the opinion that people have about someone because of what has happened in the past

 

 

 

  1. Select the option that best describes the sentence.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or " check 16-22" button.
16.
Gossip has several negative affects not only on the person being gossiped about but also on the gossiper.
   

17.
Gossip effects a person's reputation.
   

18.
It can have a damaging effect on the victim's personal relationships with others.
   

19.
In the same way, it can effect the gossiper's relationships because it raises doubts and mistrust.
   

20.
Gossip humiliates a person to the affect that he or she may become depressed and unable to function well socially.
   

21.
This cruelty negatively affects the self-esteem of the gossiper as well.
   

22.
In affect, the person becomes reliant of this form of "entertainment".