Adverb Suffixes

Form adverbs from other word forms

tennis pro
 

 

Adjective vs. Adverb

ADJECTIVE

An adjective describes a noun with qualities such as size, shape, color, worth, age, origin, and so on.  By adding the suffix -ly, the word form may be changed to an adverb (with a few exceptions differing in form or meaning).

MODIFIES THE NOUN

He is an excellent tennis player. 

He is a graceful athlete.

He is a smart player.

He is a defensive player

He is a professional athlete.

He is an expert player.  

ADVERB  -LY

An adverb provides information about the manner, frequency, degree, or other circumstances of the activity indicated by the verb or verb phrase. A similar meaning can usually be expressed by a prepositional phrase.

MODIFIES THE VERB

He plays tennis excellently(adverb)

He plays tennis in an excellent manner. (prep phrase)

He moves gracefully.

He moves in a graceful manner.

He dresses smartly.   (fashionably)

He plays in a smart way.  (strategic)

He will play defensively in tomorrow's game.

He will play in a defensive manner in tomorrow's game.

He appears professionally at fundraisers¹. 

He plays expertly.

*He appears expertly(appear – seem) (static verb).  

 

*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

¹appear – take part in a public event)  dynamic verb

For word order, see: Adverb of Manner 2   

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adverb Suffixes

-ly, -ily, -ally

 

 

 

Adjective ⇒ Adverb

ADJ. FORM + LY –Y  to  – ILY – LE   to  – LY – IC to – iCALLY

For most words, add -ly to the end of an adjective form to create an adverb word form.

For words with more than one syllable ending in -y, replace the -y with -ily.

For words with more than one syllable ending in -le, replace the -le with -ly.

For words ending in –ic, replace –ic with –ically.

late – lately

angry – angrily

able – ably

academic – academically

right – rightly

busy – busily

capable – capably

acoustic – acoustically

hopeful – hopefully

easy – easily

idle – idly

artistic – artistically

complete – completely

happy – happily

noble – nobly

classic – classically

real – really

lucky – luckily

possible – possibly

magic – magically

definite – definitely

ready – readily

probably – probably

politic – politically

mature – maturely

voluntary – voluntarily

 

tragic – tragically

EXCEPTIONS ONE SYLLABLE EXCEPTIONS EXCEPTION

true – truly  

dry – dryly   (One syllable - no change.)

subtle – subtly   – not easily noticed

public – publicly

full – fully  

coy – coyly 

smile – smiley

 

whole – wholly   

sly – slyly  

hole – holey  

 

 

shy – shyly

rule – unruly "an unruly crowd"
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adverbs for Manner

List

 

 

 

Adverbs for Manner (just a few)

abnormally

accidentally

accurately

affectionately

anxiously

artfully

awkwardly

awesomely

badly

beautifully

briskly

brutally

busily

calmly

carefully

cautiously

cheerfully

clearly

cleverly

colorfully

comfortably

competitively

confidently

cowardly

crazily

customarily

deliberately

delightfully

desperately

dependably

distinctly

doubtfully

eagerly

easily

extraordinarily

expertly

famously

fashionably

freely

furiously

gently

gracefully

guiltily

happily

harshly

helpfully

hurriedly

imaginatively

irresponsibly

jealously

jokingly

joyfully

justly

kindly

knowledgeably

lawfully

leisurely

lifelessly

luckily

lovingly

loyally

magnificently

maturely

mechanically

mindlessly

miraculously

miserably

musically

naturally

neatly

noisily

oddly

officially

painfully

personally

proudly

punctually

purposefully

quickly

readily

regretfully

religiously

romantically

sadly

safely

secretly

silently

skillfully

sleepily

steadily

suspiciously

tastefully

tenderly

terribly

thoroughly

uniquely

universally

untruthfully

vocally

voluntarily

warmly

watchfully

weakly

willingly
 

External Resources: " Adverbs List". ESL Desk. http://www.esldesk.com/vocabulary/adverbs
LDOCE. (word definitions)   http://www.ldoceonline.com (Note in most cases the adjective form appears in the dictionary with the adverb form entry at the bottom.)  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adverbs from Nouns

Suffixes -ways and -wize

 

 

 

Noun ⇒ Adverb:  -ways and -wise

ADVERB FOR MANNER

A few adverbs are formed from nouns with the suffix -wise, meaning "in this/that way"

He hit the tennis ball sideways. "in a way that sent it off to the side of the court"

The official turned the timer clockwise"in the circular direction that the hands of a clock turn"

He folded his towel lengthwise"with the fold as the length of the item"

ADVERB FOR OPINION

In these examples, the adverb ending in -wise modifies the idea of the clause, and it limits the viewpoint of the speaker to a specific  viewpoint, area or domain.  See Adv for Opinion.

Weatherwise, it will be a great day for a tennis match.   "In view of the weather…"

It can't be too windy.  Otherwise, the officials postpone the match. 

Likewise, heavy rain can be a reason for postponing a match.   

 

 

 

Other Words with -wise

IN THIS WAY FROM THIS PERSPECTIVE¹

clockwise/

counterclockwise

otherwise

job-wise

lengthwise / ways

edgewise / ways

pricewise

time-wise

sideway /

crosswise

healthwise

money-wise

sideways/ sidewize

 

likewise

weatherwise

It's hard to get a word in edgewise — to succeed in entering a conversation or expressing one's opinion in spite of competition or opposition
¹The suffix -wise can be added to a number of words to limit the specific area or domain. A hyphen is used with a new term that is created for a specific use.  See Hyphens.
††always - is not related to the -ways and -wize suffixed words

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adverbs

Word Form Exceptions

 

 

 

Adverb Differs in Form or Meaning

UNCOMMON ADVERB FORMS

In these words, the adjective and adverb word forms are the same, or already end in -ly.

good–well    

He is a good runner. (Adj)
He runs
well. (Adv)

fast–fast

He is a fast runner. (Adj)
He runs
fast. (Adv)

hard–hard

It was a hard game. (Adj)
They played
hard. (Adv)

loud–loud or loudly   

He is a loud speaker. (Adj)
He speaks
loud / loudly. (Adv)

early – early  (already ends in -ly)
daily – daily 

It is the early / daily edition of the newspaper. (Adj)
The newspaper arrives early/ daily.   (Adv)

friendly – in a friendly manner
(Rephrase the adverb with manner or way.)

He is friendly. (Adj)
He behaves
in a friendly manner / way. (Adv)    

lovely – in a lovely way
(Rephrase the adverb with manner or way.) 

Her dancing is lovely. (Adj)
She dances
in a lovely manner / way. (Adv)

SHIFT IN MEANING

In these words the adjective and adverb differ in meaning.

hard (tough)hardly (barely)

A  desk has a hard surface. (Adj)
I
hardly have time to sleep. (Adv)

late (tardy)  –lately  (recently)

He arrived late to work. (Adj)
He hasn't been working
lately. (Adv)

high (related to height)   –highly  (very much)

The picture is high on the wall. (Adj)
The picture is
highly valuable. (Adv)

free (no cost)  –freely  (without restriction)

Water is free. (Adj)
You can speak
freely. (Adv)

pretty (beautiful) –pretty  (rather)

She is a pretty child. (Adj)
She is
pretty difficult to manage. (Adv)

short (not tall)  –shortly  (soon)

The distance is short. (Adj)
We'll arrive there
shortly. (Adv)

right (correct, direction)  –right  (just, exactly, completely)

You are right. (Adj)
Take the
right fork in the road. (Adj)
The birds flew
right over us. (Adv – directly)
The wind blew my hat
right off. Adv – (completely)
We'll leave
right away. (Adv  –immediately)
Do it
right. (Adv – correctly)

 

Solution - lightbulb    Pop-Q "Right"

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR

*He was breathing hardly.

*She arrived lately.

*The car goes extremely fastly.
 

He feels badly about the matter.  

He becomes happily when he sees her.

The crowd went wildly.

He is very successfully and earns a lot of money.
 

SOLUTION

He was hardly breathing (adv degree)–barely, not much

He was breathing hard. (adv manner) –with great effort

She arrived late. (Adj) She arrived and was late. (See adjective complement.)

She hasn't been here lately (recently)

The car goes extremely fast (adv degree) –extremely, very; adv mannerfast

The car is fast (Adj)

He feels bad. (Adj)  This use of "feel" is static; see Feel sensation.)

He is regretful about the matter.

He becomes happy when he sees her. (Adj) – "become" is static

He will happily come to see you.

The crowd went wild.   went (static verb)– behaved, acted; wild (Adj) –out of control

The crowd went inside slowly. ;went (dynamic verb)–move in a direction  

He is very successful and… be + (Adj) –a stative verb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

Golfer Hits Gopher

a gopher a golfer
 

 

 

Read for Word Choice

James, a golfer, was playing a round golf the other day when he (accidental–accidently) hit his ball into a hole off the golfing greens. James made an (accidental–accidently) shot. Unexpectedly, an (angry–angrily) gopher appeared. The gopher (angry–angrily) pushed the ball out out of its hole.  The gopher complained (loud–loudly). The gopher made a (loud–loudly) complaint. The ball hit him (hard–hardly) on the head. James could (hard–hardly) believe that a gopher was making its home on the golf course. Normally, James has (good–well) eyesight. However, he didn't see (good–well) this time because his ball did land anywhere near the golf green.

The gopher probably had a (painful–painfully) headache. The gopher lay still for a moment and then blinked its eyes (painful–painfully). The (guilty–guiltily) golfer, James, reached for his ball. "Sorry, little guy!" James said (guilty–guiltily) .  The gopher disappeared (quick–quickly) into its hole — with the ball!  So James (quick–quickly) left the golfing green without his ball. After this experience, James (wise–wisely) wore his glasses whenever he played golf. The (wise–wisely) gopher found a new hole to live in.

 

GLOSSARY

a round of golf — a quantifier for 18 holes of golf

make a shot (N) — hit the golf ball (to a precise location)

complain (V) — protest, express dissatisfaction

complaint (N) — saying that someone is unhappy or unsatisfied

eyesight (N) — ability to see well

 

golfer (N) — a person who plays golf   –gɒlf, gɔlf–

golf green — the grassy area on a golf course

guilty (Adj) — feeling ashamed or sad because you know that you have done something wrong

off the greens — outside of the official grass area of a golf course

wise (Adj) — clever, smart

 

 

 

 

Select the word form — adjective or adverb?

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Click the "check all" button at the bottom of the practice to reveal the answers after you finish, or
    c lick the individual "check" buttons #1-20 to compare responses as you go.

 

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golf


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Practice 2

"Fourno" Lamb

oven roasted lamb

 

 

Read and Reword

herb: sageEach year, we roast a spring lamb in the traditional way.  That is to say, the lamb is prepared in a careful way as it has been for hundreds of years. 

After we select a side of lamb, we take it home, and prepare the "fourno", a stone oven.  First, my father builds a fire in a skillful way with dried wood from old fruit trees. It takes a while for the wood and the oven to get hot.  In a happy way, he sits outside, "feeds" the oven, and talks to my uncle. He checks the burning wood frequently to see if it is turning a light gray color.

Meanwhile, we prepare the lamb.  First, we wash it with water and lemon and pat it dry in a thorough manner. Then, we slice garlic in a fine way and insert in a gentle way under the skin of the lamb.

 We sprinkle the lamb in a light manner with salt, pepper and oregano and place it in a large pan. 

If needed, we tie the lamb in a secure way so that it won't fall apart. Then, we place the pan in the oven with the side facing out.  As the lamb cooks, he adds twigs of rosemary, thyme, sage and oregano into the flames in a quick manner.

The wonderful smell of the roasting lamb and the smoky herbs causes us to wait in an impatient manner.  In the last half hour of cooking, we arrange cut potatoes in a neat manner around the lamb in the pan.

 When the lamb is ready, we take our places at the table and await our first bite in an eager manner.  We sit together as a family and eat in a joyful manner.

fourno (N) — a Mediterranean outdoor brick or stone oven

herbs (N) — plants that give flavor to food in cooking such as  oregano, rosemary and thyme

roast (V) — cook slowly aside a fire

secure (Adj) — tight or firm, not moving

skillful (Adj) — having knowledge, practice and experience; expert

smoky (Adj) — having the character or appearance of smoke, the dark gray gas given off by something, such as wood, burning

sprinkle (V) — pour something in drops or small particles

thorough (Adj) — complete, careful in detail

twig (N) — a small, dry, woody piece fallen from a branch

 

 

 

 

Reword the sentence so that the prepositional phrase of manner is an adverb of manner.

  1. Enter your response in the edit box.
  2. Compare your response to the answers on the right by clicking the "check" button.   The less preferred placement is shown in brackets [  ].
21.
Each year, we roast a spring lamb in the traditional way.


22.
That is to say, the lamb is prepared in a careful way as it has been for hundreds of years.


23.
First, my father in a skillful way builds a fire with dried wood from old fruit trees.


24.
In a happy way, he sits outside, "feeds" the oven, and talks to my uncle.


25.
First, we wash the lamb in a thorough manner with water and lemon and pat it dry. 


26.
Then, we in a fine way slice garlic and in a gentle way insert it under the skin of the lamb.


27.
We in a light manner sprinkle the lamb with salt, pepper and oregano and place it in a large pan.


28.
If needed, we in a secure way tie the lamb so that it won't fall apart.


29.
Then, we place the pan in the oven with the side facing out.


30.
As the lamb cooks, he adds in a quick manner twigs of rosemary, thyme, sage, and oregano into the flames.


31.
The wonderful smell of the roasting lamb and the smoky herbs causes us to wait in an impatient manner.


32.
In the last half hour of cooking, we arrange cut potatoes in a neat manner around the lamb in the pan.


33.
When the lamb is ready, we take our places at the table and in an eager manner await our first bite.


34.
We sit together as a family and in a joyful manner eat.