Linking Adverbs

Indicate a relationship between two clauses

organic
 

 

Linking Adverbs & Prepositional Phrases

LINKING ADVERBS PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

We use linking adverbs to indicate a relationship between two clauses.  [They are also called conjunctive adverbs, connective adverbs or transition words]  These words transition the reader or listener from the main idea in one clause to the idea in the next clause.

A similar meaning may be expressed with a prepositional phrase.

ENUMERATING / ORDERING ENUMERATING ORDERING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  Firstly, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Secondly, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

Firstly, Secondly, Third/ Thirdly, Then, Next, Lastly, Finally

(First and second (ordinal numbers) and last may also be used.)

 

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  In the first place, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  For another, they are not genetically modified. In addition, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

For one thing, For another, In the first place, To begin with

ADDING ADDING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  Organic fruit and vegetables are less contaminated by chemical pesticides, and they are not genetically modified. Furthermore, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Moreover, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

Furthermore, Moreover,  Another thing is   See And / In addition "adding a conclusive fact"

 

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  Organic fruit and vegetables are less contaminated by chemical pesticides, and they are not genetically modified. In addition, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Besides that, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best.

In addition, Besides that

SUMMING SUMMING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. Overall, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

Overall, To summarize, To conclude, All in all

 

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. In short, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

In sum, In summary, In conclusion, in short

PLACING IN APPOSITION / RESTATING PLACING IN APPOSITION / RESTATING

Buying organic foods is a better choiceWhich is to say, they are less contaminated, altered, and processed. As a result, they have a shorter "shelf life", that is, they stay fresh for shorter periods of time on market shelves than foods with preservatives.  Shorter shelf-life means you eat fresher food.

Which is to say, That is, Namely, Specifically, More precisely

 

Buying organic foods is a better choiceFor example, they are less contaminated, altered, and processed. As a result, they have a shorter "shelf life", in other words, they stay fresh for shorter periods of time on market shelves than foods with preservatives.  Shorter shelf-life means you eat fresher food.

In other words, For example, For instance

CONDLUDING / INFERRING CONCLUDING / INFERRING

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. Therefore, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

Therefore, Consequently. Thus, Hence, so    See Cause & Effect.

 

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. As a result, organic fruit and vegetables are healthier and tastier.

As a result , For this reason, For all these reasons, In conclusion

CONTRASTING / CONCEDING CONTRASTING / CONCEDING

Buying organic fruit is a better choice. While conventionally grown fruit may be contaminated by chemical pesticides, organically grown fruit is not.   Conventionally produced fruit is picked while it is green so that it will not become damaged in long-distance shipping. However, organic fruit is picked when it is ripe, and by necessity is consumed locally.

Alternatively, However    See Contrast and Contrary Outcome.

 

Buying organic fruit is a better choice.  Conventionally grown fruit is contaminated by chemical pesticides. In contrast, organically grown fruit is not.   Conventionally produced fruit is picked while it is green so that it will not become damaged in long-distance shipping. On the other hand, organic fruit is picked when it is ripe, and by necessity is consumed locally.

On the other hand, In contrast to  See Comparisons

TRANSITIONING – A LOOSELY RELATED ADDITION TRANSITIONING – A LOOSELY RELATED ADDTION

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. Incidentally, you will pay more for organically produced food.

Incidentally, Now (inf.)    See Comma–comments, Aside Comments.

 

Buying organic fruit and vegetables is a better choice.  First, they are less contaminated by chemical pesticides.  Second, they are not genetically modified. Next, they are allowed to mature or ripen fully.  Finally, they have a shorter "shelf life" so they are sold when fresh or best. By the way, you will pay more for organically produced food.

By the way, By the by(not commonly used)

Also called: transitions words, adverbial conjunctions, conjuncts, connective adjuncts, connecting adverbs. See Grammar Notes below.

See Connector Summary .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Mistakes

Errors and Solutions

 

 

 

Error and Solution

ERROR SOLUTION

* At first, I want to talk to you. Then, we'll decide what to do.  

Firstly, I want to talk to you. Then, we'll decide what to do. adverb
First, I…   You can also use an ordinal number instead of the adverb.
At first, I wanted to talk to him, but then I changed my mind. "in the beginning" (time adverb)
 

Firstly, organic foods have no preservatives, so they are fresher. In addition, they are not genetically modified.  *Nextly, they taste better because they are allowed to ripen fully.

 

Next, they taste better…  an old form that is no longer used 

When using adverbs for ordering, most writers use a particular word form to maintain the style of writing,  i.e. first, second, last or firstly, secondly, lastly, finally. However, next no longer occurs with the -ly suffix.

One advantage is that organic foods have no preservatives, so they are fresher. In addition, they are not genetically modified.  *At last, they taste better because they are allowed to ripen fully.

 

Lastly, they taste better because they are allowed to ripen fully.
We waited a long time. At last, they arrived with the pizza.   "in the end and late" (time adverb)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Resource Comments

 

 

 

Linking or Connecting Adverbs

AZAR, SWAN HUDDLESON, BIBER, QUIRK

Connectives such as "therefore", "consequently", "however", "otherwise" and "nevertheless" are called transitions or conjunctive adverbs. (Azar 19-2, 19-9)

Huddleston and Pullum refer to these as connective adjuncts and serial adjuncts (778)  They function in ordering, addition and comparison, elaboration and exemplification.

There is, moreover, no justification for making an exception. (8 §19)
She read the book for the third time. ( 8 §10)

Swan refers to these as connecting adverbs, "These adverbs join a clause to what came before."  Examples: then, next, besides, anyway, suddenly, however.  (22.1) Discourse markers "They can show the connection between what a speaker is saying and what has already been said…  ( 157)

Biber refers to these words as linking adverbials, which state the speaker's perception of the relationship between two units of discourse.…" They are "important devices for creating textual cohesion, alongside coordinators and subordinators."  (10.4.1.4)  The categories are the same as those presented on this page.

 

Quirk refers to these words as conjuncts. "the conjunct function entails a conjunct-specific set of semantic relations.  They are connected with, but are frequently rather remote from, the adverbial relation we must assume in the speaker-related clause to which they correspond."   (1) Listing – enumerative, additive (equating, reinforcing; (2) Summative; (3) Appositional; (4) Resultive; (5) Inferential; (6) Contrastive (7) Transitional.  

 

 

 

Resources

 

 

 

 

Practice

Organic Food: Is it Worth It?

vegetables
Try organic food,
or as your grandparents called it, "Food".
 

 

Add linking (connective, conjunctive) adverbials.

  1. Select your response from the menu.
  2. Compare your edit with the feedback.  (More than one answer exist.)

 

1–2.

 

 

 

 

3–4.
 
 
 

pesticide (n.) – a chemical substance used to kill insects and small animals that destroy crops
residue (n.) – a substance that remains on a surface and cannot be removed easily, or that remains after a chemical process
Also see "Adding examples or clarification" For example.

 

 

 

6–11.
An item labeled "organic" must meet several requirements.     
An item labeled "organic" must meet several requirements.