Connector (Connectives) Overview 

Express relationship between sentence parts

windy
 

 

Connector Chart

COORDINATORS PAIRED COORDINATORS SUBORDINATORS LINKING ADVERBS / TRANSITIONS

Coordinators join two words, phrases or independent clauses. They mostly occur mid-sentence with a comma placed before the conjunction.  They may also begin a sentence¹.

These join equivalent sentence elements such as one noun phrase with another noun phrase. These occur as paired words.  (Also see Focusing Adverbs.)

These join a dependent clause to an independent clause. They occur at the beginning of sentences with a comma separating the clause mid-sentence or they occur mid-sentence with no comma.  

These join two clauses or sentences. They can be used at the beginning of a sentence or mid- sentence (with punctuation). They transition the reader from the thought of one sentence to the thought in the next.

It was cold, and the wind was blowing. (different subjects)

It was raining, so he opened his umbrella.

He opened his umbrella, but it was blown backward.

He bought a good umbrella, yet it broke in the wind.

He both lost his umbrella and became wet.

Neither his umbrella nor his coat kept him dry.

His umbrella blew backward and so did his coat.

There was more wind than he expected.

The rain was as bad as the wind.

Though it was raining, he continued walking.

He walked though it was raining. 

Besides being windy, it was rainy.

The wind was strong besides being cold.
 

He opened his umbrella. However, the wind blew it away.

It was windy and cold. Moreover, it was raining. 

His umbrella blew away in the wind. Otherwise, he would have used it.

In addition, it was windy and cold.

ADDITION      

and, also, and also

both...and, not only ...also, not only ... but also, and...too, and so
 

besides, in addition to

in addition, furthermore, moreover, additionally, besides, firstly, secondly, next, finally

ALTERNATIVE      

or, nor

either...or, neither...nor , rather than (1)

rather than(2)

instead, as an alternative, otherwise, rather
 

CAUSE-EFFECT / REASON      

so, for

so...that, such...that

because, since, now that, as, in order, as long as, inasmuch, because of, due to, owing to, so that, in order that, if only because
 

therefore, consequently, as a consequence, as a result, thus, hence, accordingly

COMPARISON      

 

as…as, more...than, less...than

as (like), as if, as though

In the same way, Similarly, In contrast, Unlike X, Y
 

CONDITION      

or else

whether.. or not

if, only if, unless, even if, whether,   whether or not,   provided (that),   in case,   in the event (that) 

otherwise, in the event (that), anyway, anyhow

CONTRARY CAUSE-EFFECT      

but, yet, but still, but anyway

neither... nor

although, even though, though, while, whereas, despitein spite of, regardless of

nevertheless, nonetheless, however, on the one hand, on the other hand, in contrast to, in contrast, on the contrary

EMPHASIS      

 

 

 

indeed, in fact, of course, certainly
 

PLACE      

 

 

where, wherever
 

 

TIME      

 

 

after, before, when, while, since, as, until, as soon as, by the time, once

first, second, next, then, finally, previously, now, presently, next, still, meanwhile, subsequently, afterward
 

¹ Beginning a sentence with and, so or but (comments by Fowler, Merriam-Webster and other grammarians.)

Also see Adverb Uses (an overview of adverbs and adverbials) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Notes

Terms in Various Grammar Systems

(Advanced)

 

 

Traditional and Linguistic Descriptions

TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION
COORDINATORS COORDINATORS

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

conjunctions "connects words or phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence. This use of conjunctions is called 'parallel structure'. " —  (Azar 16-1) coordinating conjunctions " And and but are often used to connect two independent clauses. " (Azar et al. 16-4)

 

and, or, but, nor
coordinator   (Huddleston 4.2.2, 15-2.2)
coordinators. coordinating conjunction (Biber 2.4.7)
coordinators (and, or, but, for) (Quirk 13.5-10)

for, only and so+that   "borderline connectors" / prepositions (Huddleston 15 §2.11)
yet, but…still, but…anyway
adjunct of concession.coordinator  (Huddleston 8 §13.2);
conjunction (Swan 49) ;

PAIRED SUBORDINATORS PAIRED COORDINATORS

both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor   

paired conjunctions:  "The same grammatical form should follow each part of the paired conjunctions. " — (Azar 16-3)

both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor 
Focusing adverbs. (Huddleston et al. 6.7.3, 15.2.4)  (Swan 24.6)
Correlative coordinators. (Biber 2.4.7.1)
Focusing subjuncts. (Quirk 8.116)

SUBORDINATORS SUBORDINATORS

after, because, though, if
adverb clauses (Azar 17.3-11)

 

 

 

yet, so
connective adverbs (Huddleston 15 §2.10)
linking adverb (Biber 887
subordinator (Quirk 2.4.7.2)

after, as, as soon as, before, once, since while
— temporal adjunct.preposition (Huddleston et al. 7.2.4, 8.63, 11.8)
conjunction (Swan 29.1.1, 30.1, 510) and  (Quirk 8.53)

because, as, since, inasmuch as
cause-effect adjunct.preposition (Huddleston et al. 8 12.3)
conjunction (Swan 94, 72) "subordinating conjunction" (Biber 2.4.8)
adverbial clause. reason (Quirk 15.45)

though, even though, although
prepositions.concessive adjuncts  (Huddleston 8 §13.2);"
conjunctions (Swan 49.1) 
circumstance adverbial. concession.subordinator (Biber 10.2.8.9-11);
adverbial clause (Quirk 15.39-40) 

even so, nevertheless, nonetheless, despite, regardless of, in spite of
— prepositions.concessive adjuncts  (Huddleston 8 §13.2);
discourse markers. (Swan 157.2)

if, whether, unless
condition adjunct.preposition    (Huddleston 8.14)
adverb "circumstance adverbial:Contingency " (Biber 10.2, 10.2.1.4)
conjunction (Swan 257) 
adverbial clause (Quirk 15.39,15.41-2)

after, before, since, when, while\ 
temporal location adjuncts.prepositions  (Huddleston 8 §6.3;697)
conjunctions (Swan 29.1, 30.1, 73, 97, 411.6, 510)
subordinator.adverbial clause (Biber 2.4.7.5)
subordinator. adverbial clause (Quirk 8.53, 15.28)

(See Grammar Notes on individual pages for details.)

TRANSITION WORDS TRANSITION WORDS

moreover, however, otherwise
Connectives "transitions", "conjunctive adverbs", "Transitions connect the ideas of two sentences. They are used most commonly in formal written English and rarely in spoken English.  A transition occurs in the second of two related sentences."  (Azar 19-2) 

 

so, yet, however
connective adverb (yet, however) (Huddleston 6 §6,15 §2.9-10)
contrastive.linking adverb. (Biber  2.3.4, 7.14.3, 10.4.3.1)
adverb (Swan 49.3)

then, next, besides, anyway, suddenly, however, moreover, however, otherwise
connective adjuncts (Huddleston 8 §19-20)
connective adverb (Swan  22.1) discourse markers. (Swan 157.1-21)
linking adverbs. (Biber 10.4)
conjuncts. (Quirk 8.137)

 

Major changes: Many words that were analyzed as  Adverb (category) have been reassigned to the category Preposition. "We count as prepositions words that take other kinds of complement than NPs, and we also include in the preposition category some words that occur without complement.  i. According to Mary, we have no chance of winning. ii. The basket is outside. (Huddleston et al. 6.5.1)   The traditional category of "subordinating conjunctions" reanalyzed as prepositions (PP) with a content clause as the complement  (Huddleston 11.8.1)

CATEGORIES:  NP –noun phrase; N – noun; VP – verb phrase; V – verb; Detdeterminer; PP – prepositional phrase; P – preposition; AdvP – adverb phrase; Adv – adverb; AdjP– adjective phrase; Adj – adjective
FUNCTIONS: Subject:  Subject,   Predicate: Predicator (V) Complements: (elements required by verb) Object, Indirect Object, Predicative Complement  Adjuncts: (optional modifiers) Adj, Adv

 

 Resources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

A Day on the Bay

sailing
 

 

Complete the sentence with a logical connector.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.
1.


  Because/ Though
2.
3.
4.


Because/ Though 
5.


Condition
6.


Condition
7.


novice
(n.) – new member, a learner


Comparisons
8.


Because/ Though | Effect
9.
10.


close calls – near collisions


Because/ Though  | Noun Phrases 
11.


Because/ Though 
12.


Because/ Though 
13.


Because/ Though 
14.
15.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

"The Spirit of the Sea"  

 

Vaka Canoe of Ancestors  Polynesian Canoes in San Francisco
Vaka Moana Canoes

(Advanced)

 

 

Read the Context

Six "vaka moana" canoes arrived in San Francisco this morning _____ sailing across the Pacific from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands and to mainland U.S.   _____ the 15,00 mile ocean journey, the canoes arrived safely.

They are participating in the voyage "Te Mana o Te Moana" which translates to "The Spirit of the Sea".  This voyage was made _____ they wanted to raise awareness about the state of the ocean and to share the wisdom of the Polynesian ancestors who loved and respected the sea. "We are all in one canoe," they said. 

The canoes, each about 70 feet long, carry a crew of 16 sailors from_____ Tonga _____ the Cook Islands, Kiribati and Vanuatu.  More than 150 crew members are participating in the voyage, which began in April in Auckland, New Zealand.
_____ the canoes were built as the traditional vaka moana canoes used by the Pacific Islander ancestors, these have some modern changes. _____ the hulls (canoe bottoms) used to be made of wood, these are made of fiberglass. _____ , they have solar panels to power equipment on board.

_____ the ancient Polynesians navigated by the stars, these modern sailors have Internet, Facebook and Twitter as well.  They even have a website where you can track their progress.

The six-canoe flotilla came in through the Golden Gate a week ago and were surprised _____ the strong winds and fog in the bay.  Fortunately, the fog lifted and the winds calmed down _____ the sailors could hold an open house and give rides to visitors.

"The Pacific is our home, our breath, our future. We can only survive _____ we come together as cultures, as crew-mates, to preserve the health of our ocean planet – Our Blue Canoe."
The flotilla will continue to Monterey, Los Angeles, and San Diego. In January of 2012, the journey will continue to the Galapagos Islands, Marquesas _____ Tahiti _____ .

 

— SFGate news story   8 Aug 2011   pacificvoyagers.org  

ancestors (n.) — family members who came before us (parents, grand-parents, etc.)

awareness (n.) — know about the existence of something; know generally what it is

breath (n.) — the air that we take into our lungs; life-giving, basic to life

crew (n.) — the people who assist with sailing a boat or flying a plane

fiberglass (n.) — a man-made, light weight material used in making boats and cars

flotilla (n.) — a group of boats that sail together

Golden Gate Bridge (n.) — a landmark bridge in San Francisco, California, USA

mainland (n.) — land that is part of a continent (not an island)

navigate (v.) — find which way you need to go while traveling

open house — a reception or party in which you can go in and look around

participate (v.) — do an activity (with others)

sail (v.) — move across the water

solar panels (n.) — collectors which change the energy to the sun to battery power

track progress (expr.) — see or follow where someone is located on a travel route

Vaka Moana canoe — a traditional (old-style) Polynesian boat

voyage (n.) — a long trip; a journey

 

 

 

 

Add a connector to the sentence.

  1. Edit the sentence in the text area.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or "check 16-27" button.
16.
Six of the seven "vaka moana" canoes arrived in San Francisco this morning [time-related connector] sailing across the Pacific from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands and to the U.S. mainland.


17.
[contrary cause-effect connector] the 15,000 mile ocean journey, the six canoes arrived safely.


18.
They are participating in the voyage "Te Mana o Te Moana" which translates to "The Spirit of the Sea".

This voyage was made [reason connector] they wanted to raise awareness about the state of the ocean and to share the wisdom of the Polynesian ancestors who loved and respected the sea.


19.
The canoes, each about 70 feet long, carry a crew of 16 sailors from [paired addition connector] Tonga […] the Cook Islands, Kiribati and Vanuatu.


20.
[contrary cause-effect connector] the canoes were built like the traditional "vaka moana" canoes used by the Pacific Islanders ancestors, these canoes have some modern changes. 


21.
[contrast connector] the hulls (canoe bottoms) used to be made of wood, these are made of fiberglass.


22.
[additional conclusive fact], they have solar panels to power equipment on board.


23.
[Contrast connector] the ancient Polynesians navigated by the stars, these modern sailors have Internet, Facebook [paired addition] Twitter […].


24.
The crews of the six-canoe flotilla came in through the Golden Gate a week ago and were surprised [reason phrase] the strong winds and fog in the bay.


25.
Fortunately, the fog lifted and the winds calmed down [purpose subordinator] the sailors could hold an open house and give rides to visitors.


26.
"The Pacific is our home, our breath, our future. We can only survive [conditional connector] we come together as cultures, as crew-mates, to preserve the health of our ocean planet – Our Blue Canoe."


27.
The flotilla will continue to Monterey, Los Angeles, and San Diego. In January of 2012, the journey will continue to the Galapagos Islands, Marquesas [paired addition] Tahiti […].