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Connector Overview  (Connectives, Conjunctions)

Express relationship between sentence parts

windy
 

 

Connector Chart

COORDINATORS SUBORDINATORS ADJUNCT PREPOSITIONS CONNECTIVE ADVERBS

A coordinator expresses a relationship (addition +, contrast -, option +/-) between two like (same kind) words, phrases or clauses.   The coodinated elements are reversible [A+ B = B + A].    See Coordinators.  Also see Coordinator Properties.

A subordinator marks¹ a clause as subordinate to (a dependent of) the main clause. The subordinator itself does not have a meaning. It serves to connect content information. See Subordinators.  Also see Clauses: Other Clause Types.

A preposition as the head of an adjunct prepositional phrase connects a subordinate structure. Unlike a subordinator, a preposition carries meaning, and depending on its meaning may take a noun phrase, a clause, or a variety of other complements.

A connective adverb expresses a relationship between two clauses and transitions the reader or listener from the main idea in one clause to the idea in the next clause. (Also called  conjunctive adverbs, linking adverbs or transition words.)

It was cold, and the wind was blowing. (different subjects)

He opened his umbrella, but the wind blew it backwards.

Did he take an umbrella, or did he wear his raincoat?

He took neither an umbrella nor a raincoat.

 

He said that it was raining.

He thinks (that) we need rain.

It is so windy that it blew me over.

We like to walk in the rain.

He wishes (for) us to bring a coat.

He asked if I needed an umbrella.

Though it was raining, he continued walking.

He walked though it was raining. 

Besides being windy, it was rainy.

The wind was strong besides being cold.  

He opened his umbrella. However, the wind blew it away.

It was windy and cold. Moreover, it was raining. 

His umbrella blew away in the wind. Otherwise, he would have used it.

In addition, it was windy and cold.

*It was raining, so he opened his umbrella.

NO MEANING      

 

that (declarative)

if, whether (interrogative)

to (infinitival),

for (infinitive subj)

 

 

ADDITION      

and, also, and also

both...and, not only ...also, not only ... but also, and...too, and so

 

 

besides, in addition to

in addition, furthermore, moreover, additionally, besides, firstly, secondly, next, finally

ALTERNATIVE      

or, nor, either...or, neither...nor, X rather than Y

 

prefer X to Y, would rather…or, rather than(2)

instead, as an alternative, otherwise, rather 

CAUSE-EFFECT / REASON      

*so, *for (Also connective adverb)

 

because, since, now that, as, in order, as long as, inasmuch, because of, due to, owing to, so that, in order that, if only because

so (reason), for (purpose)

therefore, consequently, as a consequence, as a result, thus, hence, accordingly

COMPARISON      

 

 

as (like),as…as, same as, so…as, such…as, such as, similar to, equal to/with, identical to/with, -er than, more than, less than, rather than, prefer…to, superior to, inferior to, different from/to/than.

In the same way, Similarly, In contrast, Unlike X, Y

 

CONDITION      

or else

 

if, only if, unless, even if, whether,   whether or not,   provided (that),   in case,   in the event (that) 

otherwise, in the event (that), anyway, anyhow

CONTRARY CAUSE-EFFECT      

but, but still, but anyway

*yet (Also connective adverb)

 

although, even though, though, while, whereas, despitein spite of, regardless of

yet, nevertheless, nonetheless, however, on the one hand, on the other hand, in contrast to, in contrast, on the contrary

EMPHASIS      

 

so...that (Adv-Subord)

such...that (Adj-Subord)

 

indeed, in fact, of course, certainly

 

PLACE      

 

 

where, wherever 

there², here, In this location

TIME      

 

 

after, before, when, while, since, as, until, as soon as, by the time, once

first, second, next, then, finally, previously, now, presently, next, still, meanwhile, subsequently, afterward

 

Beginning a sentence with and, so or but (comments by Fowler, Merriam-Webster and other grammarians.)

¹A subordinator is a marker. A preposition is not analyzed as a marker but as an integral part (the head) of the prepositional phrase.  See Coordinator, Subordinator, Preposition in Adjunct Phrase.

²See Temporal Expressions  ("adverbs" that belong to other categories) and An Adverb (an overview of adverbs and adverbials) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Grammar Notes(Advanced)

Terms in Various Grammar Systems

(Advanced)

 

 

Traditional and Linguistic Descriptions

MIXED DESCRIPTIONS  
A) COORDINATORS B) PAIRED COORDINATORS

and, or, but, nor

  • coordinating conjunction (Aarts 81)
  • conjunction [sub-clausal] or coordinating conjunction [clausal] (also yet, so)(Azar et al. 16-1, 16-4)
  • coordinator. coordinating conjunction (Biber 2.4.7)
  • coordinator (Huddleston 4.2.2, 15-2.2)
  • coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, for, then, yet) (Payne 76) 
  • coordinator (and, or, but, for) (Quirk 13.5-10)

 

for, only and so that  

  • "borderline connectors" / prepositions (Huddleston 15 §2.11)

 

but…still, but…anyway

  • adjunct of concession.coordinator  (Huddleston 8 §13.2)
  • conjunction (Swan 49)

 

both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor 

  • paired conjunctions (Azar 16-3)
  • correlative coordinators (Biber 2.4.7.1)
  • focusing adverb (Huddleston et al. 6.7.3, 15.2.4)
  • complex coordinating conjunctions (and yet, and then) (Payne 76)
  • focusing adverbs (Swan 24.6)
  • focusing subjuncts (Quirk 8.116)

 

 

C) SUBORDINATORS C) SUBORDINATORS (continued)

after, as, as soon as, before, once, since, when, while

  • conjunctive preposition.time (Aarts154)
  • adverb.adverbial clause (Azar 17.3-11)
  • subordinator.adverbial clause (Biber 2.4.7.5)
  • temporal adjunct.preposition  (Huddleston 8 §6.3)
  • subordinating conjunction. time adverbial clause (Payne 345)
  • conjunction (Swan 29.1, 30.1, 73, 97, 411.6, 510)
  • subordinator. adverbial clause (Quirk 8.53, 15.28)

 

because, as, since, inasmuch as

  • conjunctive preposition.reason (Aarts155)
  • adverb.adverbial clause (Azar 17.3-11)
  • cause-effect adjunct.preposition (Huddleston et al. 8 12.3)
  • conjunction (Swan 94, 72) "subordinating conjunction" (Biber 2.4.8)
  • subordinating conjunction.reason adverbial clause (Payne 76, 345)
  • adverbial clause. reason (Quirk 15.45)

 

though, even though, although

  • conjunctive preposition.concession (Aarts154)
  • adverb.adverbial clause (Azar 17.3-11)
  • circumstance adverbial. concession.subordinator (Biber 10.2.8.9-11)
  • prepositions.concessive adjuncts  (Huddleston 8 §13.2)
  • subordinating conjunction. concessive adverbial clause (Payne 345)
  • conjunction (Swan 49.1) 
  • adverbial clause (Quirk 15.39-40) 

 

because of, due to, owing to, on account of

  • complex preposition.reason (Aarts 78, 155)
  • complex preposition (Biber 2.4.5.2)
  • cause-effect adjunct.preposition + PP or NP (Huddleston et al. 8 12.3; 731)
  • two-word and three-word preposition (Swan 94)
  • cause adjunct.prepositional phrase "adjuncts of contingency" (Quirk 8.86)

even so, despite, regardless of, in spite of

  • complex preposition.conjunctive preposition (Aarts 78)
  • preposition.concessive adjunct  (Huddleston 8 §13.2)
  • preposition.concessive adverbial clause (in spite of) (Payne 345)
  • discourse marker (Swan 157.2)

 

yet, so

  • conjunctive preposition.result (Aarts154)
  • coordinating conjunction [clausal] ( yet, so)(Azar et al. 16-1, 16-4)
  • conjunct adverb (Biber 442)
  • connective adverb.adjunct of concession (and still, yet) (Huddleston 15 §2.10, 8 §13)
  • subordinating conjunction (so [not yet]) (Payne 76) 
  • subordinator (Quirk 2.4.7.2)

 

if, unless

  • conjunctive preposition.condition (Aarts154)
  • adverb "circumstance adverbial:Contingency " (Biber 10.2, 10.2.1.4)
  • condition adjunct.preposition    (Huddleston 8 §14.1-3)
  • subordinating conjunction.condition adverbial clause (Payne 76, 346)
  • conjunction (Swan 257) 
  • adverbial clause (Quirk 15.39,15.41-2)

 

that  (He said that it was cold.)

  • subordinating conjunction (Aarts 81)
  • declarative subordinator (Hudddleston 11 §4.2-5)
  • subordinating conjunction or complementizer (Payne 333)

 

whether, if   (He aked if it was cold.)

  • subordinating conjunction (Aarts 82)
  • interrogative subordinator(Hudddleston 11 §5.2)
  • subordinating conjunction or complementizer (Payne 333)

 

D) TRANSITION WORDS D) TRANSITION WORDS (continued

then, next, besides, however, moreover, however, otherwise

  • transition or conjunctive adverb (Azar 19-2) 
  • connective adjunct (Huddleston 8 §19-20)
  • connective adverb (Swan  22.1) discourse marker (Swan 157.1-21)
  • linking adverb (Biber 10.4)
  • conjunct (Quirk 8.137)

however, nevertheless, nonetheless, therefore, first

  • adverb phrase.clause adjunct (nevertheless, however) (Aarts 104)
  • linking adverb. (Biber  2.3.4, 7.14.3, 10.4.3.1)
  • connective adverb (Huddleston 15 §2.10)
  • conjunctive clausal modifier (Payne 250)
  • adverb (Swan 49.3)

 

Major change: In The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002), we found several words that were previously analyzed as adverbs (belonging to the Adverb category) re-analyzed as prepositions (belonging to the Preposition category). "We count as prepositions words that take other kinds of complement than NPs, and we also include in the preposition category some words that occur without complement.  i. According to Mary, we have no chance of winning. ii. The basket is outside." (Huddleston et al. 6.5.1)   The traditional category of subordinating conjunctions is reanalyzed as prepositions (PP) with a content clause as the complement  (Huddleston 11.8.1)

 

Lexical Categories: N – Noun; V – Verb; Aux – Auxiliary; Adj – Adjective; Adv – Adverb; P –Preposition; Det –Determiner.

Phrasal Categories: NP – Noun Phrase; VP – Verb Phrase; AdjP – Adjective Phrase; AdvP – Adverb Phrase; PP – Prepositional Phrase; DP – Determinative Phrase.

Clausal Categories: Cls – clause; F – finite clause; NF – nonfinite clause (Ger – gerund; Inf – infinitive; PPart – past participle).

Functions: Subj – subject; Pred – predicate/predicator; Compcomplement: elements required by an expression to complete its meaning (DO – direct object; IO – indirect object);  Adjunctadjunct: elements not required by an expression to complete its meaning (Subord – subordinator; Coord – coordinator); Suplsupplement: a clause or phrase added onto a clause that is not closely related to the central thought or structure of the main clause.

 

Resources

  • Aarts, Bas. Oxford Modern English Grammar. New York: Oxford UP, 2011. Print.
  • Azar, Betty Schrampfer, and Stacy A. Hagen. Understanding and Using English Grammar. White Plains, New York: Pearson Longman, 2009. Print.
  • Biber, Douglas, and Stig Johansson, et al. Longman Grammar Of Spoken And Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education, 1999. Print.
  • Huddleston, Rodney D., and Geoffrey K. Pullum. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2002. Print.
  • Payne, Thomas Edward. Understanding English Grammar: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print.
  • Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
  • Quirk, Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. 7th ed. New York: Longman Group, 1989. Print.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 1

A Windy Walk

San Francisco Embarcadero walkway
 

Read the Context

Mid-day we walk along the Embarcadero in San Francisco though a cold wind whips our hair across our faces. Clouds move across the sky and at times hide the bridge towers. We talk while we walk. We try to let go of our thoughts about work yet they creep into our conversation. We have just an hour to walk before returning to our offices. This is why we live here, isn't it? Because we love the view of the bay and the smell of the saltwater, we endure the traffic and the crowds. 

As we count our steps and watch the time, we pass by sculptures and artwork along the walkway. In the distance, barking sea lions on the boat docks are begging for fish, but nobody is paying attention to them. We turn back and quicken our pace in order to return to work on time.

Sitting back down in our offices, we are bothered by neither co-workers nor bosses; our minds are still filled with views of the bay and the smell of the sea air.

GLOSSARY   

bark (V) — the sound a dog makes

beg (V) — ask for something as a gift, free, charity

creep (V) — move in a quiet, careful way, especially to avoid attracting attention

embarcadero (N) — a roadway or walkway along the waterfront

endure (V) — be in a difficult or painful situation for a long time without complaining

contrary (Adj) — when the idea in one clause is opposite in expectation, opinion, or action to that in the second clause

 

dock (N) — wooden walkway where boats are tied up; a boat landing pier

pace (V) — rate or speed of walking

sculpture (N) — three-dimensional (3-D) art; an object made out of stone, wood, clay, or some other material by an artist

view (N) — sight

whips (V) — strike with a lash or rod, usually as punishment

 

 

 

Identify the connector.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "Check" or "Check 1-10" button.

 

1.
Mid-day we walk along the Embarcadero in San Francis though a cold wind whips our hair across our faces.

The connector expresses
2.
3.


When / While
4.
5.


While / When -ing
6.


Cause & Effect
7.
8.


But / But still
9.
10.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 2

A Day on the Bay

sailing
 

 

Complete the sentence with a logical connector.

  1. Select the response from the list that best completes the sentence. 
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" button.

 

11.


  Because/ Though
12.
13.


Adverbs of Condition
14.


Because/ Though 
15.


Condition
16.


Condition
17.


novice
(N) – new member, a learner


Contrasts
18.


Because/Though
19.


If/In Case
20.


close calls – near collisions


Because/ Though  Noun Phrases 
21.


Because/ Though
22.


Because/ Though
23.


Because/ Though
24.
25.


If/Unless  Indeed/Even 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Practice 3

"The Spirit of the Sea"  

Vaka Canoe of Ancestors

(Advanced)

 

 

Read the Context

Six "vaka moana" canoes arrived in San Francisco this morning _____ sailing across the Pacific from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands and to mainland U.S.   _____ the 15,00 mile ocean journey, the canoes arrived safely.

They are participating in the voyage "Te Mana o Te Moana" which translates to "The Spirit of the Sea".  This voyage was made _____ they wanted to raise awareness about the state of the ocean and to share the wisdom of the Polynesian ancestors who loved and respected the sea. "We are all in one canoe," they said. 

The canoes, each about 70 feet long, carry a crew of 16 sailors from_____ Tonga _____ the Cook Islands, Kiribati and Vanuatu.  More than 150 crew members are participating in the voyage, which began in April in Auckland, New Zealand.
_____ the canoes were built as the traditional vaka moana canoes used by the Pacific Islander ancestors, these have some modern changes. _____ the hulls (canoe bottoms) used to be made of wood, these are made of fiberglass. _____ , they have solar panels to power equipment on board.

_____ the ancient Polynesians navigated by the stars, these modern sailors have Internet, Facebook and Twitter as well.  They even have a website where you can track their progress.

The six-canoe flotilla came in through the Golden Gate a week ago and were surprised _____ the strong winds and fog in the bay.  Fortunately, the fog lifted and the winds calmed down _____ the sailors could hold an open house and give rides to visitors.

"The Pacific is our home, our breath, our future. We can only survive _____ we come together as cultures, as crew-mates, to preserve the health of our ocean planet – Our Blue Canoe."
The flotilla will continue to Monterey, Los Angeles, and San Diego. In January of 2012, the journey will continue to the Galapagos Islands, Marquesas _____ Tahiti _____ .

 

— SFGate news story   8 Aug 2011   pacificvoyagers.org  

ancestors (N) — family members who came before us (parents, grand-parents, etc.)

awareness (N) — know about the existence of something; know generally what it is

breath (N) — the air that we take into our lungs; life-giving, basic to life

crew (N) — the people who assist with sailing a boat or flying a plane

fiberglass (N) — a man-made, light weight material used in making boats and cars

flotilla (N) — a group of boats that sail together

Golden Gate Bridge (N) — a landmark bridge in San Francisco, California, USA

mainland (N) — land that is part of a continent (not an island)

navigate (V) — find which way you need to go while traveling

open house — a reception or party in which you can go in and look around

participate (V) — do an activity (with others)

sail (V) — move across the water

solar panels (N) — collectors which change the energy to the sun to battery power

track progress (expr.) — see or follow where someone is located on a travel route

Vaka Moana canoe — a traditional (old-style) Polynesian boat

voyage (N) — a long trip; a journey

 

 

 

 

Add a connector to the sentence.

  1. Edit the sentence in the text area.
  2. Compare your response to the feedback by clicking the "check" or "check 16-27" button.

 

26.
Six of the seven "vaka moana" canoes arrived in San Francisco this morning [time-related connector] sailing across the Pacific from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands and to the U.S. mainland.


27.
[contrary cause-effect connector] the 15,000 mile ocean journey, the six canoes arrived safely.


28.
They are participating in the voyage "Te Mana o Te Moana" which translates to "The Spirit of the Sea".

This voyage was made [reason connector] they wanted to raise awareness about the state of the ocean and to share the wisdom of the Polynesian ancestors who loved and respected the sea.


29.
The canoes, each about 70 feet long, carry a crew of 16 sailors from [paired addition connector] Tonga […] the Cook Islands, Kiribati and Vanuatu.


30.
[contrary cause-effect connector] the canoes were built like the traditional "vaka moana" canoes used by the Pacific Islanders ancestors, these canoes have some modern changes. 


31.
[contrast connector] the hulls (canoe bottoms) used to be made of wood, these are made of fiberglass.


32.
[additional conclusive fact], they have solar panels to power equipment on board.


33.
[Contrast connector] the ancient Polynesians navigated by the stars, these modern sailors have Internet, Facebook [paired addition] Twitter […].


34.
The crews of the six-canoe flotilla came in through the Golden Gate a week ago and were surprised [reason phrase] the strong winds and fog in the bay.


35.
Fortunately, the fog lifted and the winds calmed down [purpose subordinator] the sailors could hold an open house and give rides to visitors.


36.
"The Pacific is our home, our breath, our future. We can only survive [conditional connector] we come together as cultures, as crew-mates, to preserve the health of our ocean planet – Our Blue Canoe."


37.
The flotilla will continue to Monterey, Los Angeles, and San Diego. In January of 3012, the journey will continue to the Galapagos Islands, Marquesas [paired addition] Tahiti […].